Plants

Created by jdoppster Teacher

176 terms

cells

Plants are made of __________.

cell membrane

A plant cell has a __________ __________, which allows substances to enter into and exit the cell.

cell wall

A plant cell has a __________ __________, which provides structure and support for the cell.

cellulose

A plant cell wall is made up of a substance called __________, which is a chemical compound that plants can make out of sugar.

cellulose

Long chains of __________ molecules form tangled fibers in plant cell walls.

chlorophyll

Many plants contain the green pigment __________.

green

Most plants are __________ because they contain the green pigment chlorophyll.

photosynthesis

Plants need chlorophyll to make food using a process called __________.

chloroplast

Chlorophyll is found in a cell structure called a __________.

vacuole

Most plant cells have a large, membrane-bound structure called the central __________ that takes up most of the space inside of the cell.

vacuole

The __________ plays an important role in regulating the water content inside of a plant cell.

cuticle

Plants have a waxy covering on their roots, stems, and leaves called a __________ that slows down the loss of water in plants.

cuticle

A waxy, protective layer secreted by the upper epidermis in plants is called the __________.

xylem

In plants vein like structures called __________ carries water from the roots to the leaves.

phloem

In plants vein like structures called __________ carries water and dissolved nutrients from the leaves to the roots.

nonvascular

The two major groups of plants are __________ plants and vascular plants.

vascular

The two major groups of plants are nonvascular plants and __________ plants.

Vascular

__________ plants have tube-like structures that carry water, nutrients, and other substances throughout the plants.

Nonvascular

__________ plants do not have tube-like structures that carry water, nutrients, and other substances throughout the plant.

Carolus Linnaeus

All plants have a genus species name developed by a man named __________ __________.

spores

Nonvascular plants do not grow from seeds but instead grow from __________.

rhizoids

Instead of roots, nonvascular plants have thread-like structures called __________ that help to anchor the plant to a surface.

water

In nonvascular plants __________ is absorbed directly through cell membranes and cell walls.

cell membranes

In nonvascular plants water is absorbed directly through __________ __________ and cell walls.

cell walls

In nonvascular plants water is absorbed directly through cell membranes and __________ __________.

flowers

Nonvascular plants do not have __________ or cones that produce seeds.

cones

Nonvascular plants do not have flowers or __________ that produce seeds.

spores

Nonvascular plants reproduce by making small waterproof structures called __________.

mosses

Examples of nonvascular plants are __________, liverworts, and hornworts.

liverworts

Examples of nonvascular plants are mosses, __________, and hornworts.

hornworts

Examples of nonvascular plants are mosses, liverworts, and __________.

mosses

Most nonvascular plants are classified as __________.

mosses

You can usually find __________ growing on tree trunks or on rocks in moist environments.

Mosses

__________ have green, leaf-like growths arranged around a central stalk.

rhizoids

Instead of roots mosses have __________.

liverworts

In the ninth centruy, __________ were thought to be useful in treating diseases of the liver.

herb

The suffix "wort" means "__________".

Liverworts

__________ are rootless plants with flattened, leaf-like bodies called "thallus".

hornworts

Most __________ are less than 2.5 centimeters in diameters and have a flattened body like liverworts.

chloroplast

The plant cells of hornworts are unique because they have only one large __________ in each cell.

Hornworts

__________ get their name from their spore-producing structures, which look like tiny horns of cattle.

thin

Mosses and liverworts are important to the ecology or many areas because they can grow in __________ soil and in soils where other plants cannot grow.

pioneer species

Organisms that are the first to grow in new or disturbed areas are called __________ __________.

fern

A __________ is a type of vascular plant that produces spores instead of seeds.

vascular

Vascular plants have __________ tissue.

vascular bundles

Vascular tissue contains __________ __________.

xylem

Vascular bundles contain __________ and phloem.

phloem

Vascular bundles contain xylem and __________.

ferns

Examples of vascular, seedless plants include __________, club mosses, and horsetails.

club mosses

Examples of vascular, seedless plants include ferns, __________ __________, and horsetails.

horsetails

Examples of vascular seedless plants include ferns, club mosses, and __________.

Ferns

__________ are the largest group of vascular, seedless plants.

fronds

Fern leaves are called __________.

club mosses

Ground pines and spike mosses are groups of plants that often are called __________ __________.

needle

Club mosses have __________-like leaves.

spores

Club mosses produce __________ in at the end of the stems in structures that look like tiny pinecones.

horsetails

The stem of __________ is jointed and has a hollow center surrounded by a ring of vascular tissue.

sections

If you pull on a horsetail stem, it will pop apart in __________.

scouring rush

Another common name for horsetails is __________ __________ because the stems contain silica, a gritty substance found in sand.

silica

This is a gritty substance found in sand and in some plants.

seeds

All vascular plants produce __________ instead of spores.

gymnosperms

The two major groups of seed plants include __________ and angiosperms.

angiosperms

The two major groups of seed plants include gymnosperms and __________.

Leaves

__________ are the organs of the plant where the food-making process of photosynthesis takes place.

cells

Leaves are made up of layers of __________.

upper epidermis

The top layer of a leaf is called the __________ __________.

palisade layer

The second layer of a leaf is called the __________ __________.

spongy layer

The third layer of a leaf is called the __________ __________.

lower epidermis

The bottom layer of a leaf is called the __________ __________.

upper epidermis

This is the leaf layer that is responsible for making the waxy cuticle.

palisade layer

This is the leaf layer that consists of closely packed, long, narrow cells where most photosynthesis takes place.

spongy layer

This is the leaf layer that consists of loosely arranged cells separated by air spaces.

lower epidermis

This is the leaf layer where stomata can be found that open and close to let in raw materials for the plant and to get rid of waste products.

spongy layer

This is the leaf layer where the vascular bundles can be found.

stem

The __________ of a plant is usually located above ground and support the branches, leaves, and flowers.

herbaceous

Plant stems can be either __________ or woody.

woody

Plant stems can be either herbaceous or __________.

Herbaceous

__________ stems are usually soft and green, like the stem of a tulip.

Woody

__________ stems are usually hard and rigid and have an outer covering called bark, like a tree.

root

The __________ system is the largest part of a plant.

Xylem

__________ tissue is made up of hollow, tubular cells that are stacked one on top of the other to form a structure called a vessel that transports water and dissolved nutrients from the roots to the leaves.

Phloem

__________ is a plant tissue made up of tubular cells that are stacked to form structures called tubes that carry food from the leaves down to the roots.

Cambium

__________ is a plant tissue that produces most of the new xylem and phloem cells.

gymnosperms

The oldest trees alive are __________.

Gymnosperms

__________ are vascular plants that produce seeds protected by cones.

needle

The leaves of most gymnosperms are __________-like or scale-like.

evergreens

Many gymnosperms are called __________ because they stay green all year.

conifers

The four main groups of gymnosperms include __________, cycads, ginkgoes, and gnetophytes.

cycads

The four main groups of gymnosperms include conifers, __________, ginkgoes, and gnetophytes.

ginkgoes

The four main groups of gymnosperms include conifers, cycads, __________, and gnetophytes.

gnetophytes

The four main groups of gymnosperms include conifers, cycads, ginkgoes, and __________.

Conifers

__________ are the largest group of gymnosperms.

male

All conifers produce two types of cones, __________ and female.

female

All conifers produce two types of cones, male and __________.

pollen

Male cones produce __________.

seeds

Female cones produce __________.

Angiosperms

__________ are vascular plants that produce seeds protected by fruit.

Angiosperms

__________ produce flowers that eventually change into some type of fruit.

monocots

Angiosperms are divided into two groups, __________ and dicots.

dicots

Angiosperms are divided into two groups, monocots and __________.

Monocots

__________ have flower parts in multiples of three.

Dicots

__________ have flower parts in multiples of four or five.

Monocot

__________ leaves have veins that are parallel.

Dicot

__________ leaves have veins that are net-like.

Monocots

__________ have vascular bundles scattered throughout the stem.

Dicots

__________ have vascular bundles that are arranged in a ring.

Monocot

__________ seeds have just one cotyledon (the first leaf).

Dicot

__________ seeds have two cotyledons (the first leaves).

stomata

In plants the __________ act as doorways for raw materials such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, and waste gases to enter and exit the leaf.

guard cells

In the lower epidermis of leaves two cells called __________ __________ open and close the stomata.

water

In order to open the stoma the guard cells must be filled with __________.

water

In order to close the stoma the guard cells must be drained of __________.

day

Stomata are usually open during the __________.

night

Stomata are usually closed during the __________.

open

Stomata are usually __________ during the day.

closed

Stomata are usually __________ during the night.

Photosynthesis

__________ is the process during which a plant's chlorophyll traps light energy and sugars are produced.

chloroplasts

In plants, photosynthesis occurs only in cells with __________.

raw materials

Carbon dioxide, water, and light energy are the three __________ __________ needed in order for photosynthesis to take place.

end products

Glucose and oxygen are the __________ __________ in the process of photosynthesis.

dependent

The two chemical reactions that take place in the process of photosynthesis are light-__________ and light-independent reactions.

independent

The two chemical reactions that take place in the process of photosynthesis are light-dependent and light-__________ reactions.

water

During light-dependent reactions chlorophyll traps and uses light energy to split __________ into hydrogen and oxygen.

glucose

During light-independent reactions the light energy trapped during the light-dependent reaction is used to combine carbon dioxide and hydrogen to form __________

Glucose

__________ is a simple sugar made by plants through the process of photosynthesis.

Respiration

__________ is a series of chemical reactions that breaks down food molecules and releases energy.

chloroplast

The process of photosynthesis takes place in the __________.

mitochondria

The process of photosynthesis takes place in the __________.

oxygen

Respiration uses __________ to break down glucose into carbon dioxide, water, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

food energy

The process of respiration changes __________ __________ into a form that all plant and animals cells can use.

stimulus

A __________ is anything in the environment that causes a response in an organism.

tropism

A __________ can be seen in plants as movement caused by a change in growth and can be positive or negative.

thigmotropism

In this type of tropism a plant responds either positively or negatively to the sense of touch.

gravitropism

In this type of tropism a plant responds either positively or negatively to gravity.

phototropism

In this type of tropism a plant responds positively or negatively to light.

positive

When a pea plant's tendirls coil around a solid object we say this is a __________ response to touch.

positive

A plant stem and leaves growing toward light is a __________ response to light.

negative

The stem of a plant growing away from gravity is a __________ response to gravity.

positive

The roots of a plant growing towards gravity is a __________ response to gravity.

ethylene

The five types of plant hormones that have been discovered are __________, auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, and abscisic acid.

auxins

The five types of plant hormones that have been discovered are ethylene, __________, gibberellins, cytokinins, and abscisic acid.

gibberellins

The five types of plant hormones that have been discovered are ethylene, auxins, __________, cytokinins, and abscisic acid.

cytokinins

The five types of plant hormones that have been discovered are ethylene, auxins, gibberellins, __________, and abscisic acid.

abscisic acid

The five types of plant hormones that have been discovered are ethylene, auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, and __________ __________.

ethylene

The plant hormone __________ is produced in the cells of ripening fruit, which stimulates the ripening process.

Auxin

__________ is a plant hormone that was discovered by scientists more than 100 years ago.

Auxin

__________ is a type of plant hormone that causes plant stems and leaves to exhibit a positive response to light.

Gibberellins

__________ are a type of plant hormone that can be sprayed on plants and seeds to stimulate plant stems to grow and seeds to germinate.

Cytokinins

__________ are a type of plant hormone that promote growth by causing faster cell divisions.

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