Oliver O Howard
Run's freedman's bureau and later founds and serves as president of howard university in washington DC.
Grew up humbly and represented poor whites in tennessee. Refused to secede w/own state. Used to be vice president to get war democrat vote for lincoln. Called for lincoln 10% plan and disenfranchised certain leading confederates w/taxable profits more than 20000, though they can petition for pardons. Called for special state convention which repealed secession and repudiated confederate debts and satisfy thirteenth amendment. States that comply go into union. pardoned many of the aristocrats that beg his favor. Impeached for violating tenure of office acts but not convicted.
Vice president of confederacy who is elected to US congress but still convicted for treason.
Led radicals and labored for racial equality in the senate.
Friend of blacks who defended runaway slaves without fee and insisted on burial in black cemetery, leader of radicals in house. Hated white southerners. House attorney to impeach johnson.
Expansionist that signs treaty giving alaska to US for 7.2 mil. Countrymen calls it a folly since its full of ice. People are anti-expansion and economy minded.
INtended to be a primitive welfare agency. Provides food, clothing, and education to freed and white refugees. Gave 40 acres of abandoned or confiscated land to black settlers. Run by oliver o howard. Taught 200000 blacks how to read. Many slaves wan tot close gaps between themselves and whites. Gave virtually no land, sometimes expelled blacks from towns and made them sign labor contracts to masters. Extension vetoed by johnson.
ten percent plan
Decreed that a state could be reintegrated into union when 10 percent of its voters in the presidential election of 1860 had taken oath of allegiance to US and pledged to abide by emancipation. Next a state gvt would form so lincoln recognizes them.
Required that 50 percent of a state's voters take the oath of allegiance and demanded stronger safeguards for emancipation than lincoln's as the price of readmission. Pocket-vetoed the bill which angers the republicans.
Idea that S has seceded and committed suicide as republican states. Therefore states gave up rights and have to be admitted as conquered provinces.
Majority want to admit seceding states into union swiftly, though on congress's own terms. Minority want S to suffer severely. Social structure uprooted, planters punished, and helpless blacks protected by federal power.
Regulate affairs of the emancipated blacks, much as the slave statues had done before civil war. Penalties given to blacks who leave labor contracts, which make them work for little for one year. Violators give up salary and forced back to work. Mississippi fines and then you have to work to pay fine. Many forbid blacks in jury, renting or leasing land, and idleness. None are allowed to vote. Many end up being repealed.
Jobs black people do and gradually remain there for generation because of a bill up of debt. Makes them slaves to soil and creditors.
civil rights act
Conferred on blacks the privilege of american citizenship and struck at black codes. Vetoed by johnson, overridden by republicans.
Conferred civil rights including citizenship, not including franchise, to blacks, reeducated proportionately the representation of a state if it denied ballot, disqualified from federal and state office former confederates who had before sworn to uphold constitution, and guaranteed federal debt while repudiating confederate debt. Southern states ignore it, republicans say you cant come into union until you allow it.
swing around the circle
Campaigning johnson does in 1866 to get moderates elected. accuses radicals in congress of planning large-scale antilock riots and murder in the S. Often confronted hecklers. His speeches actually helped republicans do better.
military reconstruction act
Divided the South into five military districts each commanded by a union general and policed by blue clad soldiers, about twenty thousand all told.. The act also temporarily disenfranchised tens of thousands of former confederates. Congress additionally lays stringent conditions to readmit states. Had to ratify 14th amendment, giving slaves rights as citizens. Also had to agree to full suffrage for former adult male slaves. Stopped short of giving the freedmen land or education at federal expense. Didn't actually helps justice for blacks. Set up martial regime of dubious legality.
Radical republicans scared states repeal black suffrage put this in constitution to make sure ballot isn't taken away.
ex parte mulligan
Supreme court rules that military tribunals cant try civilians even during wartime in areas where civil courts are open. Peace time military rule goes against that.
Republican governments that are firmly entrenched into South states when federal troops decide to leave. Usually government swiftly pass into home rule regimes of democrats right afterword and get rid of radicals. Sometimes conscienceless promoters and other political bribery are part of it. Often used inexperienced blacks as pawns in order to purchase legislative supplies like perfumes, suspenders, champagne etc. One governor saved 100,000 from a salary of 8,000. Scams are common in North also. Regimes pass needed legislation and reforms. Public schools, tax systems, public works, and property rights to women. Many reforms retained by redeemer governments.
Southerners sometimes former unionists/whigs, who help make new regimes. Enmity of former confederates who accuse them of taking treasures of S states through political influence in radical governments.
Northerners who supposedly had packed all their wordily goods into a carpetbag suitcase at war's end and had come to the S to seek their fortune.
ku klux klan
Invisible empire of the south founded in tennessee against black legislators and radical regimes. Hammered on upstart blacks' doors and demand a bucket of water. Poor it into a rubber attachment beneath mask/gown and claim it was first water since death at shiloh. Hoped to scare away blacks and many stay away from polls. many people who continue to vote are murdered/beaten. Louisiana parish kills or wounds 200 blacks to keep them in place.
Federal troops were able to stamp out much of the klu klux klan, though it had already scared many people. Many other clubs continued secretly as dancing clubs or missionary societies.
tenure of office act
Passed over johnson's veto and said the president had to get approval of senate before he could remove his appointees once they had been approved by senate. Wanted to freeze edwin m stanton in place, served as republican spy. Johnson sees it as unconstitutional and he dismisses stanton anyway expecting reasonable judicial speed. Soon he is impeached for violating tenure of office act and verbal assaults on congress.
Ulysses S Grant
Popular N hero who becomes president without experience or knowledge. Easily is bought and sold by people.
Democrat nominee who doesn't want repudiation plank of greenback money. Loses S support and election.
Financial millionaire who paraded in public with women behind fast horses, would with brainy gould
Brainy millionaires who works with fisk. Wanted to corner gold market but federal treasury had to stop selling gold. Paid off Grant and bid the price of gold skyward on black friday to force business people to the wall. Treasury is compelled to release gold against grant's assurances.
Wrote a cartoon that made Tweed look bad though offered a bribe.
Nominated in cincinnati liberal republican convention to be president. Erratic but brilliant editor of NY Tribune. Dogmatic, emotional, petulant, and notoriously unsound in political judgements. Also accepted by Democrats though he called them traitors and thieves. Wanted end to corruption but is still unqualified and temperamental. Denounced as atheist, communist, etc and some say he cosigned davis' bail bond. Lost election, job, mind, and life in month.
Millionaire who runs jay cooke and company and financed civil war. Company goes bankrupt in 1872 and people lose jobs.
Led stalwart faction of republicans and swapped jobs for votes all the time. Portrayed as a gobbling turkey.
James G Blaine
Led the half breeds and was a personable congressmen with a good memory. Had a good speaking voice and was inclined to demagoguery in pursuit of office. Took advantage of irish and republican voting blocs by shouting about britain and the war though he didn't fight in the war. Became secretary of state and fought to stop the stalwarts from taking offices. Decided to run for president but his mulligan letters that he had dealigns with a boston businessman involving a S railroad. Mugwumps stop supporting him. Loses election in NY when a priest of his denounces catholics and makes him ose to Irish.
Rutherford B Hayes
Called the great unknown as a officering the civil war. Hailed from Ohio where he was governor, Republicans wanted the ohio votes so he is chosen. CAlled old 8-to-7. Temperance people who don't smoke. Had to stop many riots over jobs and depression.
Headed prosecution of tweed and gained fame that helped him win presidential nomination. Weak voiced and campaigned against republican scandal. Needed one more vote of the possible 20 disputed and led in popular vote.
James A Garfield
Darkhorse candidate who fights for protective tariff and reform in civil service. Lots of people ask him for jobs and he has trouble saying no. Shot by guiteau and his martyrdom enhances his reputation. Greatest service to country was to die when he did. Helped show evils of public servants and spoils system.
Chester A Arthur
Stalwart senator who is cockling's henchman of new york. Becomes president when garfield dies. Had no political experience except with cockling. Was intelligent, idealist, and had integrity. Prosecuted certain post-office frauds and gave cronies a frosty reception with spoils system. Passed pendleton act of 1883 to help reform. Classified 14000 offices, 10%. Offended party with reform and died of a hemorrhage later.
Winfield S hancock
Civil war general who appealed to veterans and was popular in S where he fair-mindedly handled the military reconstruction districts. Wanted tariff for revenue only, loses the election.
Charles J Guiteau
Mentally deranged office seeker that shoots garfield who dies. Said that he was guilty because of insanity and cant tell right from wrong. He is found guilty and hanged.
Rocketed from Buffalo office to governor of Ny to president democrat nomination. Vetoed bill reducing fairs on NYC elevated railroads. Wanted a candidate with good character. People find out he has illegitimate sun and people doubt him. Wins election and is a laissez-faire business person. Vetoed bill to help drought texas people, government doesn't help people. Named confederates to cabinet and divided between reforms and office seeking democrats. Caved into democrats eventually though he rejects the fraudulent claims of many veterans who want pensions. Vetoed a bill adding several hundred thousand pensioners to the rolls. Wanted to lower tariff for consumers and hurting monopolies. End to treasury surplus. Hurt in election because his low tariff is associated with english and hurts irish vote. Loses next election and passes dawns act which controls indians. Interstate commerce act to curb the railroads. Got 81 million acres in W that was taken by cattle barons and railroad octopus.
Nominated by republicans who is young tippecanoe. Accused of beating wife. Purchaesd many votes by getting 3 mil in war chest. wins election though he loses popular vote.
Agrarian and debtor groups who clamored for a resistance of cheap greenback inflation. More money meant cheaper money and this raises prices and easier to pay debts. Fought for inflation after crime of 1873. Starts a greenback labor party for inflation.
People who want the end of greenbacks and the inflation it created. Looked forward to treasury withdrawing all the money in 1868. Creditors want money to mean more and fight for this policy. Didn't want depreciated dollar. Persuaded grant to veto a bill to print more money and got resumption act. Policy of republicans gets democratic HOR in 1874 and spawned a greenback labor party that elects members of congress.
Treasury accumulates gold stocks against appointed day for resumption of metallic money payments. Coupled with reduction of greenbacks also. The deflated the currency and per capita in circulation actually decreases. Worsened depression and restored gvts credit though and brought greenbacks to face value. Soon few greenbacks holders trade valuable bills for gold.
Gold is exchanged for the greenbacks at face value in this process.
Name given to post civil war era given by mark twain.
Political selling of offices comes back to life in gilded age. Disbursed jobs for votes, kickbacks, and party service. Government employment, especially in the postal service, becomes big business though it hurts efficiency.
Called for redemption in greenbacks to the maximum extend possible. More money in circulation would make loans less costly and easier to find.
The Bloody Shirt
Practice of whipping up enthusiasm for the republican party by reviving memories of the gory civil war. Prominent feature of presidential campaigns and helped Grant get elected. Vote as you shot.
Milked NY of 200 million through bribery and graft. His rule is addition division and silence. Honest citizens scared into silence and protestors taxes are raised. NY times publishes stuff against him although offered 5 mil not to. Hurt by thomas nast also.
Railroad construction company formed by insiders of transcontinental union pacific railway. Hired themselves to build line and paid themselves as much as 50000 a mile for construction that cost only 30000 a mile. Paid dividends of 348 percent and distributed stock to congressmen to stop them from blowing the whistle. Exposed by NY newspaper.
Robbed treasury of millions in excise tax revenues. His own secretary is guilty and gave a written statement to jury to help his secretary theif escape.
Wanted to get rid of bribing rascals in washington and end military reconstruction. Nominated brilliant but erratic Horace Greeley who was editor of NY Tribune. Encouraged Washington to clean up its act though as a party it eventually fell apart.
Pledged the government to the further withdrawal of greenbacks from circulation and to the redemption of all paper currency in gold at face value beginning in 1879.
Crime of seventy-three
Silver sells for lots of money but treasury says its worth 1/16 of gold. People thus stop offering it to treasury and keep it. When silver is found in mines in 1783 value foes way own and silver miners assail this so called crime and want to go back to dollar of our daddies. Called for inflation and cheaper money that Republicans resisted.
Richard P bland decides that treasury will but and coin between 2 mil and 4 mil worth of silver bullion each month. Gvt decides to buy only legal minimum of silver though in order to stop inflation.
Greenback Labor Party
Political party that supports inflation and cheap greenbacks. Gets a million votes and fourteen members of congress.
Grand Army of the Republic
A politically potent fraternal organization of several hundred thousands union veterans of the civil war that is a voting bloc for the republicans.
faction led by US senator roscoe cockling from NY who embraced swapping civil service for votes.
People led by James G Blaine who takes advantage of voting blocs for their votes. Never actually fought in the war but used it for votes.
Compromise of 1877
Democrats agree that Hayes takes office in return for withdrawing intimidating federal troops form SC and LA. Republicans give Democrats a place at presidential patronage and support for a bill subsidizing Texas and pacific railroads construction of a S transcontinental line. Deal held to break electoral standoff. All disputed votes in 8-7 majority go to Republicans.
Act made after death of Garfield which was magna carta of civil service reform. Medicine applied to the long-suffering organs or the federal government. Prohibited financial assessments on jobholders including lowly scrubwomen. Made a merit system and a civil service commission with administers that have open competitive exams for posts. Classified posts are presidents picks fought over in politics. Also led to many of these office seekers going to companies and being bought by them as lobbyists in order to drive politicians into the hands of business leaders.
Reformers who disliked Blaine's fishy politics dealing with a boston businessman who bolted to the democrats. They were dubbed this name in honor of indian derivation meaning "holier than thou". Helped bring the election to grover cleveland.
exam blacks and whites had to take to make sure they were educated enough to votes. Poor whites are given an easy exam while blacks are given the more challenging one.
fee that people in the S had to pay in order to be able to vote
test that allowed people in the S to vote only if their grandfather was allowed to vote.
Lincoln's mild idea that would allow S states to come back into the union if 10% of their votes swore allegiance to country and recognized emancipation. Largely ignored by radical republicans though pursued by andrew johnson.
Name given to the fact that the South is completely democrat and doesn't change.
Hanging by a mob, usually of a black person in the South. Comes from farm owner lynch who hung slaves and left bodies for others to see.
D. W. Griffith
Pioneering film maker of nonsound. Intolerance and bitch of a nation. Based on the ku klux klan as good guys verse carpet bagger and blacks. Illicited anger from S, Thaddeus Stevens is bad guy.
governments founded on rosewater plan that allow black codes and are controlled by confederates who try to put blacks in servitude. Upset the radical republicans in congress
Job that blacks eventually have in the South instead of sharecropping because they are slaves to debts and creditors.
Writes a dissent in plessy v ferguson that says segregation does hurt equal protection.
jim crow laws
Segregation laws to separate races in the S from white people.
plessy v ferguson 1896
Supreme court rules for jim crow laws 7-1, that someone 7/8 white is still considered colored. Separate but equal doesn't violate constitution.
Someone who isnt 100% white.
separate but equal
Idea that it is constitutional for races to be separated as long as they have equal opprotunity.
W E B Du Bois
First African to get PHD from Harvard. Said why should we wait for rights? Want equality NOW. We need to fight for equality, waiting will last forever. Talented tenth will have extraordinary abilities. Talented tenth must lead the rest and not be afraid. Talented people in society.
Booker T Washington
Works at tuskegee, all black school. Teaches useful trades. Country wont accept equality of black and white. Africans prove to whites we deserve equality. We need to accept what we can get, "do that job w/dignity" whites will see we have merit.
People with extraordinary leading abilities that will have lead the rest of blacks to civil rightsand not be afraid according to WEB Du Bois. Most talented people in society.
movement of whites and blacks to fight for black equality. Movement of interracial people to bring true equality. Had to meet in Canada to avoid segregation.
Organization that niagara movement turns into. They fight cases for black people in supreme court and repeatedly fail until brown v board of education led by thurgood marshall. WEB DU Bois is elected secretary and editor of newspapers.
Brown v Board of Education 1954
Decision where Earl warren and other judges unanimously write opinion that separate but equal is inherently unequal in verdict. Mary Brown and NCAAP fight unequal education.
attorney for NAACP in brown v board of education.
Laws that made it illegal for different races to marry. Earl warren was a prosecutor for these laws.
crawford v board of education 1963
Suit against LAUSD for segregation. Mary Crawford claims jordan high school doesnt have equal opportunity for blacks as south gate high school. Both are forced to desegregate with forced busing.
loving v virginia 1967
Finds anti miscegenation laws unconstitutional. Couple married and go to virginia and put in jail. Laws are called unconstitutional.
Writes lots of african books and malcolm X. GRows up in Tennessee and family has a business so he gets educated. Sent to segregated black schools and goes to N schools. Serves in segregated military. Writes letters for people and is known as a writer for magazines. Writes roots on his ancestors history in Africa. Soon made to a TV show. Said college education in black school is 8th grade education elsewhere.
South Gate High School
High school for white people that was forced to desegregate since it had better classes.
Jordan High school
High school in watts that was the black school in crawford v board of education.
Slightly more african american city that had jordan high school and more blacks than middle class white people.
whiter city that had the "white school" that was better than jordan.
Permits with transportation
System that says if you don't like school you are permitted to go to a different one with a bus.
Had sending and receiving schools. Sending are overcrowded in city, receiving have more space in the suburbs. Program lets you ride bus to new school. District also makes magnet schools in west side and san fernando valley for opportunities.
When white families wont go to public school and avoid busing orders.
Wants to end segregated units. Supposed to do it before election to get solid S on his side before election. His ending segregation before election makes him lose solid S.
Black person who lives in chicago goes to Mississippi w/cousins. He whistles at a white women and that night he is pulled out of bed and lynched in 1955.
Black person from pasadena/UCLA. BReaks racial barrier in baseball. Played in tolerant racial climate in Canada. Needed courage not to fight back in major leagues. N cities don't allow him, had to make separate plans for him.Number is 42, symbolic that he cant be replaced at any team.
Little rock high school that has the little rock nine.
Little Rock Nine
9 african americans challenge unconstitutional jim crow laws.
governor of Arkansas, wont allow desegregation. Makes Arkansas national guard stop little rock 9.
Day of Jubilo
The occasion where black people are officially freed my their masters in front of the big house. Blacks take to the roads and get married afterword because they get their liberty.
The westward flood of black people going from Texas, Louisiana and Mississippi to Kansas. The flood is stemmed only when steamboat captains refuse to transport more black migrants across the Mississippi river.
Conventions of Freedmen
Meetings of black people who fight to make their freedom a reality. These conventions express surprisingly modern views, but moderation didnt get a warm reception by southerners.