"Divine Right" of Kings
The right to rule derives from God
Peter the Great
First Russian leader to modernize Russia
It mobilized the power of reason in order to reform society and advance knowledge
A monarch during the 18th century who brought about political, religious, and social reforms that were considered of an enlightened nature.
French men who were seen as "social critics" of the period who believed reason could be applied to all aspects of life
Earth was immovable, stationary, and center of the universe.
Polish cleric and astronomer who was the first to propose the heliocentric universe.
1st Estate-(clergy; registered births/marriages/deaths, collected tithes, censored books, operated schools); 2nd Estate-(Nobility; held highest positions in church/army/gov't, not taxed, income=manorial dues from peasants); 3rd Estate-(common people; owed huge debts: 10% income to church and tithe, feudal dues to nobles, and taxes to king)
He was accused of treason and was not interested in being king or a husband.
He drives France into debt, and threatens the state. He says "I am the State."
Louis XVI's wife who had secret lovers and spent big. She was convicted of sexual abuse and treason.
He was dedicated to the revolution- "incoruptable"; Reign of Terror ended when he was sent to the guillotine.
Common people; owed huge debts: 10% income to church and tithe, feudal dues to nobles, and taxes to king
They carried out the "Reign of Terror"
Reign of Terror
This group wanted to rid France of all enemies of Revolution
Incorporated ideas from the Revolution (& against the Revolution) - equality before the law, right to choose profession, freedom of religion, protection of property, and end of serfdom; workers denied equal treatment when dealing with employers, women lost rights,
An organization of workers that have banded together to achieve a common goal.
Karl Marx assisted in writing this book that explained the Communists' League purposes, an approach to the class struggle, and the problems of capitalism.
"Wealth of Nations"
Book written by Adam Smith which argues that free market economies are more beneficial are it reflects the economy before the industrial revolution.