AP Psychology Test - Chapter 3

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All questions from the chapter 3 test over biopsychology and the foundations of neuroscience from AP psychology, vocab included. Pearson - Psychology AP* Edition

A) plasticity

A four-year-old boy was accidentally shot in the head nearly his entire left hemisphere was removed but just three years later he was nearly completely normal. What term best explains the ability of the brain to 'rewire' itself, especially when we are young?
A) plasticity
B) reflexology
C) reuptake
D) refraction
E) expandibility

A) 23; 23

At the moment of conception, a male child receives ______ chromosomes from his mother and ______ from his father.
A) 23; 23
B) 24; 24
C) 23; 46
D) 46; 23
E) 2; 2

C) medulla; brainstem

Our ability to breathe is controlled by the ______ which is located within the ______.
A) cerebellum; midbrain
B) pons; forebrain
C) medulla; brain stem
D) brain stem; medulla
E) thalamus; forebrain

D) thalamus.

All of the following are important messengers within the endocrine system except
A) thyroid.
B) pituitary.
C) gonads.
D) thalamus.
E) adrenal glands.

A) soma

This is the area in a neuron that determines whether or not a given neuron will 'fire'.
A) soma
B) synapse
C) axon
D) dendrite
E) myelin

A) the sympathetic nervous system

As you are sleeping, the fire alarm in your house goes off, immediately you are wide awake and helping your family to escape from your house. Which part of the nervous system produces this response?
A) the sympathetic nervous system
B) the parasympathetic nervous system
C) the somatic nervous system
D) the midbrain
E) the spinal cord

E) Interneurons form complex circuits in the brain.

Which of the following is true about interneurons?
A) There are 200,000 of them for every motor neuron.
B) They are only found in the peripheral nervous system.
C) They are not found in the brain and spinal cord.
D) They relay messages between motor neurons.
E) Interneurons form complex circuits in the brain.

A) brain; spinal cord

The central nervous system is comprised of all the neurons in the ______ and the ______.
A) brain; spinal cord
B) axons; dendrites
C) muscles; terminal buttons
D) glands; spinal cord
E) brain; skeletal muscles

A) motor cortex

German surgeons, Fritsch and Hitzig, found that when they stimulated the exposed cortex on injured soldiers that the soldiers would occasionally move an arm or leg when a certain location was touched. Which area of the brain had Fritsch and Hitzig discovered?
A) motor cortex
B) hippocampus
C) Broca's area
D) somatosensory cortex
E) cerebellum

B) the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.

The peripheral nervous system is comprised of
A) the somatic nervous system and the sympathetic division.
B) the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.
C) the autonomic nervous system and the central nervous system.
D) the autonomic nervous system and the sympathetic division.
E) the parasympathetic nervous system and the central nervous system.

C) left motor cortex.

The action of grabbing your keys with your right hand is controlled by your
A) association cortex.
B) right somatosensory cortex.
C) left motor cortex.
D) right motor cortex.
E) frontal lobes.

A) frontal lobes

Phineus Gage served as an example that an individual could experience extreme trauma to this area of their brain and life. However their personality would be drastically changed.
A) frontal lobes
B) parietal cortex
C) central fissure
D) temporal lobes
E) lateral fissure

C) Monitoring the operation of the body's routine functioning

______ is an example of a parasympathetic response.
A) Preparing for a competitive dace competition
B) Preparing yourself to fight an attacking dog
C) Monitoring the operation of the body' routine functioning
D) Promoting your sexual development
E) Figuring out the answer to a difficult test question

B) PET

In the ______ procedure, a composite picture of neuron activity is produced by detecting atomic particles emitted by a radioactive dye.
A) EEG
B) PET
C) fMRI
D) CT
E) MRI

B) neurotransmitters moving from the synapse back to the presynaptic terminal buttons.

The process of reuptake involves
A) the movement of positive ions to the outside of the axon.
B) neurotransmitters moving from the synapse back to the presynaptic terminal buttons.
C) the building up of the myelin sheath around the axon.
D) the movement of negative ions to the outside of the axon.
E) neurotransmitters moving from the synapse into the postsynaptic receptor sites.

D) brain stem

From an evolutionary perspective, which part of our brain is the oldest and looks much the same as any other lower order animal?
A) frontal lobe
B) parietal lobe
C) cerebral cortex
D) brain stem
E) limbic system

D) corpus callosum

The ______ interconnects the two hemispheres of the cerebrum.
A) pituitary
B) limbic system
C) cerebral cortex
D) corpus callosum
E) cerebellum

C) EEG

Which technique for studying the brain relies on the brain's electrical activity?
A) CT
B) X-Ray
C) EEG
D) MRI
E) PET

E) remembering newer information.

A person who has suffered damage to their hippocampus would be expected to have difficulty with
A) remembering events from his distant past.
B) concentrating on complex tasks.
C) moving in a smooth manner.
D) controlling his temper.
E) remembering newer information.

C) pons.

Sleep and dreaming is regulated by the
A) amygdala.
B) hippocampus.
C) pons.
D) thalamus.
E) pituitary gland.

D) neurotrasmitters; nerve cells

Sam works as a bicycle messenger in lower Manhattan. As he moves between a car and a bus, he relies on his nervous system's production of ______, which carry information between ______, to enable him to swerve out of danger.
A) hormones; nerve cells
B) neurotransmitters; glands
C) neurons; axons
D) neurotransmitters; nerve cells
E) hormones; glands

D) Prozac elevates serotonin levels in the brain.

Which of the following is true of Prozac?
A) Amphetamine is another name for Prozac.
B) Prozac is an antagonist for dopamine receptors.
C) The effects of Prozac are specific to mood.
D) Prozac elevates serotonin levels in the brain.
E) B and C are correct.

C) biopychology

The specialty in psychology that studies the interaction of biology, behavior, and mental processes.
A) neurobiology
B) cognition
C) biopsychology
D) neuroscience
E) biology

A) the right side

In most people, ______ of the brain is/are most involved in visual-spatial activities.
A) the right side
B) the left side
C) neither side
D) the lower surface
E) rear aspect

D) are specialized sensory neurons that are sensitive to external stimuli.

Afferent neurons
A) transport messages between sensory neurons and motor neurons.
B) continuously monitor the routine operation of the body's internal functions.
C) communicate directly with motor neurons in the peripheral nervous system.
D) are specialized sensory neurons that are sensitive to external stimuli.
E) are responsible for delivering messages from the CNS to the muscles and glands.

B) the autonomic nervous system.

The parasympathetic nervous system is a subdivision of
A) the sympathetic nervous system.
B) the autonomic nervous system.
C) the somatic nervous system.
D) the limbic system.
E) the central nervous system.

A) Sensory; motor

______ neurons carry messages to the central nervous system, and ______ neurons carry messages away from the central nervous system.
A) Sensory; motor
B) Inter-; motor
C) Sensory; inter-
D) Motor; sensory
E) Inter-; sensory

B) primarily a negative charge.

The charge in the resting neuron is
A) primarily a positive charge.
B) primarily a negative charge.
C) neither a negative or a positive charge.
D) primarily effected by hormones.
E) primarily effected by neurotransmitters.

A) the sympathetic division.

"Fight or flight" behavior is associated with
A) the sympathetic division.
B) interneurons.
C) central nervous system.
D) the parasympathetic division.
E) the somatic nervous system.

A) auditory

Your temporal lobes are most important for processing ______ signals.
A) auditory
B) tactile
C) gustatory
D) visual
E) olfactory

B) language

Behavior consistently found in a speciess is likely to have a genetic basis that evolved because the behavior has been adaptive. Which of the following human behaviors illustrates this concept?
A) thinking
B) language
C) Down syndrome
D) sending astronauts to the moon
E) driving a car

C) the number of children you have

In purely evolutionary terms, which one would be a measure of your own success as an organism.
A) your intellectual accomplishments
B) the length of your life
C) the number of children you have
D) the contributions that you make to the happiness of humanity
E) your ability to find food and water

C) dopamine

Which of the following might carry a neural impulse across the synapse?
A) an axon
B) an electrical charge
C) dopamine
D) the blood
E) the cerebrospinal fluid

E) the hypothalamus

Which part of the brain communicates directly with the "master gland" of the endocrine system?
A) the pituitary
B) the brain stem
C) the cerebellum
D) the cortex
E) the hypothalamus

A) the sympathetic nervous system

Some people seem to have high blood pressure because they have an anxiety response while having their blood pressure taken at the doctor's office. Which part of the nervous system produces this anxiety response?
A) the sympathetic nervous system
B) the spinal cord
C) the somatic nervous system
D) the parasympathetic nervous system
E) the cortex

D) EEG

Which technique for studying the brain relies on the brain's electrical activity?
A) CT
B) MRI
C) fMRI
D) EEG
E) PET

B) emotions.

A brain tumor in the limbic system is most likely to produce changes in a person's
A) coordination.
B) emotions.
C) hearing.
D) sleep patterns.
E) vision.

A) the corpus callosum

In the split-brain operation, what part of the brain is severed?
A) the corpus callosum
B) the left hemisphere
C) the occipital lobe
D) the cerebrum
E) the right hemisphere

B) using spoken and written language.

The left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex is usually more involved that the right hemisphere in activities such as
A) processing emotions.
B) using spoken and written language.
C) recognizing and appreciating visual stimuli.
D) enjoying and appreciating music.
E) understanding spatial relationships.

B) The occipital lobe is part of the cerebral cortex.

Which of the following statements identifying the locations of important brain structures is true?
A) The hypothalamus is part of the brain stem.
B) The occipital lobe is part of the cerebral cortex.
C) The pons is responsible for processing memory.
D) The medulla is part of the limbic system.
E) The limbic system regulates breathing.

E) synaptic cleft/bloodstream

Neurotransmitters are released by the terminal buttons into the ______, and hormones are released by the endocrine system into the ______.
A) sympathetic nervous system/parasympathetic nervous system
B) cortex/brain stem
C) left hemisphere/right hemisphere
D) receptor sites/glands
E) synaptic cleft/bloodstream

D) variations.

Although Darwin never knew it, evolution takes advantage of genetic ______ that enhance survival and reproduction of the individual
A) theories.
B) environments.
C) diseases.
D) variations.
E) thoughts.

A) Breathing and swallowing while asleep.

Which of the following is an example of behavior controlled primarily by the autonomic nervous system?
A) Breathing and swallowing while asleep.
B) Solving a mathematical problem.
C) Reading a textbook.
D) Typing a sentence accurately on a keyboard.
E) Feeling hungry.

C) an electric charge travels down the axon.

During a neural impulse, a neuron "fires" when
A) it contracts and releases powerful chemicals directly into the bloodstream.
B) it is physically contacted by another cell that is transmitting the signal.
C) an electric charge travels down the axon.
D) signals entering at the axon travel the length of the cell and exit through the dendrites.
E) neurotransmitters attach to the dendritic receptors.

E) the frontal lobes

What part of the cerebral cortex is most involved with initiating and controlling body movements?
A) the parietal lobes
B) the hippocampus
C) the temporal lobes
D) the occipital lobes
E) the frontal lobes

Agonist

Drug or other chemical that enhances or mimics the effects of neurotransmitters.

Antagonist

Drug or other chemical that inhibits the effects of neurotransmitters.

Thalamus

The brain's central "relay station."

Plasticity

The nervous system's ability to adapt or change as a result of experience.

Association Cortex

Cortical regions that combine information from various other parts of the brain.

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