AP Human Geography Unit 6 Flashcards

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Agriculture

the practice of cultivating the land or raising stock

Animal Domestication

When animals are tamed and used for food and profit.

First Agricultural Revolution

Dating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication

Plant Domestication

genetic modification of a plant such that its reproductive success depends on human intervention

Second Agricultural Revolution

tools and equipment were modified, methods of soil preparation, fertilization, crop care, and harvesting improved the general organization of agriculture made more efficient

Shifiting Cultivation

a form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and left uncultivated for a relatively long period

Subsistence Farming

farming that provides for the basic needs of the farmer without surpluses for marketing

Third Agricultural Revolution

Currently in progress, the Third Agricultural Revolution has as its principal orientation the development of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO's)

Thunian Patterns

the patterns described in von thunen's agricultural model (the rings)

Cadastral System

patterns of settlement and land use that delineates property lines

Dispersed Settlement

characterized by a lower density of population and the wide spacing of individual homesteads.

Folk-housing Region

a reigion in which the housing stock predominantly reflects styles of building that particular to the culture of the people who have long inhabited the area

Functional Differentiation

A mode of distinguishing things or arrangements based on the purposes or activities to which they are devoted.

Hamlet

a community of people smaller than a village

Long-lot Survey

system that divided land into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers,roads, or canals

Maladaptive Diffusion

diffusion in which image takes precedence over practicality (ie. ranch style house)

Metes and Gounds Survey

Approach adopted along the eastern seaboard, in which natural features were used to demarcate irregular parcels of land

Nucleated Settlement

a compact closely packed settlement sharply demarcated from adjoining farmland

Primogeniture

right of inheritance belongs exclusively to the eldest son

Rectangular Land Survey

System that was adopted by the U.S. Government & divides land into rectangular parcels

Township-and-Range System

a rectangular land division scheme designed by Thomas Jefferson to disperse settlers evenly across farmlands of the US interior

Village

a community of people smaller than a town

Wattle

framework consisting of stakes interwoven with branches to form a fence

Agribusiness

a large-scale farming enterprise

Biotechnology

the branch of engineering science in which biological science is used to study the relation between workers and their environments

Commerical Agriculture

The growing of crops for sale-farms are large and use modern technolgy

Green Revolution

the introduction of pesticides and high-yield grains and better management during the 1960s and 1970s which greatly increased agricultural productivity

Luxury Crops

Non-subsistence crops such as tea, cacao, coffee, and tobacco

Organic Agriculture

crops produced without the use of synthetic or industrially produced pesticides and fertilizers

Plantation Agriculture

Production system based on a large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop. Almost all plantations were established within the tropics; in recent decades, many have been divided into smaller holdings or reorganized as cooperatives

Agent

Disease-causing organisms ranging from microscopic, one-celled protozoa to parasitic worms and insects.

AIDS

a serious (often fatal) disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles

Cholera

an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of contaminated water or food

Chronic Disease

a disease that develops gradually and continues over a long period of time

Contagious Disease

any disease easily transmitted by contact

Endemic

native to or confined to a certain region

Epidemic

a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease

Genetic Diseases

Diseases such as Hemophilia, Downs Syndrome, Cystic Fibrosis and Sickle Cell Anemia that result when genetic instructions in the DNA become confused as a result of genetic mutations.

Hidden Hunger

Getting enough calories but not enough nutrition.

Hosts

the organism in which the parasite lives in or on.

Infectious Disease

a disease transmitted only by a specific kind of contact

Influenza

an acute febrile highly contagious viral disease

Malaria

an infective disease caused by sporozoan parasites that are transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito

Malnutrition

a state of poor nutrition

Medical Geography

the study of health and diseases with geographic perspective.

Pandemic

an epidemic that is geographically widespread

Reservoir

tank used for collecting and storing a liquid (as water or oil)

Vector

a variable quantity that can be resolved into components

Yellow Fever

caused by a flavivirus transmitted by a mosquito

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