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All questions from the chapter 4 test over sensation and perception from AP psychology, no vocab included in this chapter. Pearson - Psychology AP* Edition

C) Sensory adaptation

______ refers to the loss of responsiveness in receptor cells due to constant stimulation.
A) Weber's law
B) Signal detection
C) Sensory adaptation
D) Absolute threshold
E) Equilibrium

C) retina.

Visual transduction occurs within the
A) cornea.
B) pupil.
C) retina.
D) fovea.
E) iris.

D) somatosensory cortex.

Sensory information related to the skin senses is processes within the
A) reticular activating system.
B) frontal lobes.
C) semicircular canals.
D) somatosensory cortex.
E) hairs of the basilar membrane.

A) bottom-up processing

What type of processing takes sensory data into the system through receptors and then sends the data to the brain for analysis of information?
A) bottom-up processing
B) integrative processing
C) serial combinatorial processing
D) top-down processing
E) distinction-extraction processing

E) the absolute threshold

Which one refers to the least amount of stimulation that your perceptual system can detect about half of the time?
A) the stimulus threshold
B) the difference threshold
C) Weber's law
D) the action potential
E) the absolute threshold

A) stimulation-trasduction-sensation-perception

When considering how a message travels from its inception to its evaluation, select which of the following places the processes involved in the correct order.
A) stimulation-transduction-sensation-perception
B) stimulation-sensation-perception-transduction
C) stimulation-sensation-transduction-perception
D) sensation-stimulation-transduction-perception
E) transduction-stimulation-sensation-perception

D) lower; absolute threshold

Elana can hear the radio even at a much lower setting than her mother. At a given setting Elana can detect that there is music playing about half of the time. At the same setting, her mother cannot hear anything. Elana could be said to have a ______, ______ than her mother.
A) lower; just noticeable difference
B) higher; difference threshold
C) higher; absolute threshold
D) lower; absolute threshold
E) lower; difference threshold

B) law of proximity

When you walk through the cafeteria at lunch, you see many people seated at tables. You perceive those individuals who are sitting near each other as being friends with one another. You are demonstrating which of the following?
A) law of common fate
B) law of proximity
C) law of similarity
D) law of continuity
E) law of Pragnanz

B) sensory adaptation

The fact that the great smell of baked goods is more powerful when you first enter a bakery than when you have been there for a while is because of
A) Weber's law.
B) sensory adaptation.
C) subliminal messaging.
D) the just noticeable difference.
E) closure.

C) kinesthetic receptors

A person with damage to the ______ would be clumsy and uncoordinated.
A) hippocampus
B) olfactory bulb
C) kinesthetic receptors
D) frontal lobe
E) temporal lobes

E) auditory cortex of the temporal lobes.

Auditory signals are processed in the
A) vestibular cortex of the frontal lobes.
B) somatosensory cortex of the parietal lobes.
C) auditory cortex of the cerebellum.
D) association areas of the frontal cortex.
E) auditory cortex of the temporal lobes.

A) slow fibers.

Intense pain stimulation generates signals that are carried by
A) slow fibers.
B) the anterior frontal cortex.
C) efferent fibers.
D) fast fibers.
E) the PAG.

B) sensory pathways

Nerve impulses that carry information travel along ______ to specialized processing areas in the brain.
A) nerve endings
B) sensory pathways
C) photoreceptors
D) olfactory epithelium
E) vestibular canals

B) sensation; perception

Tasting a carrot is ______ remember that you hate the taste of carrots is ______.
A) perception; sensation
B) sensation; perception
C) perception; perception
D) sensation; sensation
E) None of the above

A) amplitude.

Loudness is determined by sound
A) amplitude.
B) quality.
C) speed.
D) frequency.
E) pitch.

B) the inhibiting process causes them to see gray areas.

When most people look at the black-and-white Hermann Grid illusion,
A) they see two alternating patterns appear and disappear.
B) the inhibiting process causes them to see gray areas.
C) the black boxes are seen as white, and the white lines are seen as black.
D) they see other colors where there are none.
E) the boxes blur together and it is difficult to determine boundaries.

A) to collect impulses from the rods and cones and send them to the ganglion cells

What is the purpose of the bipolar cells?
A) to collect impulses from the rods and cones and send them to the ganglion cells
B) to collect impulses from the rods and cones and send them to the optic nerve
C) to collect impulses from the fovea and send them to the rods and cones
D) to collect impulses from the ganglion cells and send them to the optic nerve
E) to collect impulses from the ganglion cells and send them to the brain

C) frequency and amplitude.

The sound that is produced when you strike a tuning fork has the physical properties of
A) timbre and pitch.
B) volume and wavelength.
C) frequency and amplitude.
D) key and intensity.
E) loudness and speed.

E) yellow.

If you stare at a blue square for one minute and then look at a neutral surface, you will likely see
A) pink.
B) red.
C) green.
D) white.
E) yellow.

B) short; long

The sky appears to be blue because it reflects ______ wavelengths of light, while a rose appears red because it reflects ______ wavelengths of light?
A) subliminal; long
B) short; long
C) medium; long
D) long; medium
E) long; short

A) little to no effect on behavior.

Scientific studies of subliminal messages have thus far shown
A) little to no effect on behavior.
B) effective to help people stop smoking.
C) effective to help self-esteem.
D) effective to prevent shoplifting.
E) significant changes, especially when influencing purchasing habits.

E) ambiguous figure.

A Necker cube is an example of a(n)
A) phosphene.
B) Gestalt creation.
C) phermone.
D) mental set.
E) ambiguous figure.

D) occipital lobe.

The visual cortex is located within the
A) parietal lobe.
B) thalamus.
C) cerebellum.
D) occipital lobe.
E) frontal lobe.

C) Perception

______ is/are heavily influenced by an individual's expectations.
A) Neural networks
B) Sensation
C) Perception
D) Sensory receptors
E) Transduction

C) red and green.

A person who has the most common form of color blindness with probably have the hardest time distinguishing between
A) orange and red.
B) yellow and blue.
C) red and green.
D) yellow and red.
E) tan and pink.

B) tympanic membrane, hammer/anvil/stirrup, cochlea, basilar membrane, auditory nerve

Place the following in the correct order concerning how a message travels through the ear.
A) tympanic membrane, cochlea, hammer/anvil/stirrup, basilar membrane, auditory nerve
B) tympanic membrane, hammer/anvil/stirrup, cochlea, basilar membrane, auditory nerve
C) tympanic membrane, hammer/anvil/stirrup, basilar membrane, cochlea, auditory nerve
D) hammer/anvil/stirrup, tympanic membrane, cochlea, basilar membrane, auditory nerve
E) cochlea, basilar membrane, tympanic membrane, hammer/anvil/stirrup, auditory nerve

B) sight.

The most complex and highly developed sense for human is
A) touch.
B) sight.
C) hearing.
D) pain.
E) taste.

A) closure

When two close friends are talking, other people may not be able to follow their conversation because it has many gaps, which the friends can mentally fill in from their shared experience. Which Gestalt principle is illustrated by the friends' ability to fill in these conversational gaps?
A) closure
B) ambiguity
C) similarity
D) proximity
E) common fate

B) learning-based inference.

The tendency of adults from the mainland United States to be tricked by the Ponzo illusion, whereas Guam citizens are often not fooled by it, can be explained by
A) the law of continuity.
B) learning-based inference.
C) Gestalt psychology.
D) heredity.
E) the law of Pragnanz.

E) basilar membrane.

Place theory argues that sounds of different frequencies induce vibration in different areas of the
A) temportal lobe.
B) hammer.
C) auditory nerve.
D) tympanic membrane.
E) basilar membrane.

B) perception

Which of the following is a process that adds meaning to incoming information obtained by the sensory systems?
A) detection
B) perception
C) sensation
D) sensory adaptation
E) stimulation

D) low-intensity light/wavelengths corresponding to colors

The eyes have two distinct types of photoreceptors: the rods, which detect ______, and the cones, which detect ______.
A) color/brightness
B) motion/shape
C) bright light/dim light
D) low-intensity light/wavelengths corresponding to colors
E) stimuli in consciousness/stimuli outside of consciousness

A) low-pitched/high-pitched

The frequency theory best explains _______ sounds, while the place theory best explains ______ sounds.
A) low-pitched/high-pitched
B) tonal/atonal
C) pitch/timbre
D) simple/complex
E) loud/soft

B) They all are conveyed to the brain in the form of nerve signals.

What do all of these forms of sensation have in common: vision, hearing, taste, smell, pain, equilibrium, and body position?
A) They all involve location of stimulation in three-dimensional space.
B) They all are conveyed to the brain in the form of nerve signals.
C) They all involve higher-order perception.
D) They all arise from stimulation that comes only from outside the body.
E) They all involve waves having frequency and amplitude.

A) innate factors.

The Gestalt theory proposes that many of our perceptions are determined by
A) innate factors.
B) illusions.
C) top-down factors.
D) bottom-up factors.
E) ambiguity.

C) law of similarity

Although the markings in the ceiling tiles are of all different shapes and sizes, you notice that larger, darker spots seem to stand out against a background made up of smaller, lighter ones. Which principle of perceptual grouping explains this distinction?
A) the principle of closure
B) the law of Pragnanz
C) the law of similarity
D) the law of common fate
E) the law of proximity

D) distance.

Research has shown that cultural factors can influence people's perceptions of
A) pitch.
B) sensory adaptation.
C) timbre.
D) distance.
E) subliminal stimulation.

A) an illusion

Which one of the following is most commonly experienced when a stimulus is ambiguous, information is missing, elements are combined in unusual ways, or familiar patterns are not apparent?
A) an illusion
B) common fate
C) a false alarm
D) a correct rejection
E) proximity

E) olfaction

Which one of the following is the only sense that does not relay information through the thalamus?
A) the vestibular sense
B) audition
C) vision
D) kinesthesis
E) olfaction

B) signal detection theory

Luisa agrees to look after her friends' new baby while they run an errand. Luisa tries to read with the stereo on but keeps listening for signs that the baby might be crying in the bedroom. Several times, Luisa thinks she can hear whimpering--but when she checks the baby, she usually finds her sound asleep. Which of the following best explains why Luisa's sensations are not always accurate?
A) classical absolute threshold theory
B) signal detection theory
C) the law of Pragnanz
D) Steve's power law
E) Weber's law

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