thinking in advance about possible problems or changes that might arise and having anticipated solutions available.
anticipating alternative future situations and developing courses of action for each alternative.
has longer time horizons, affect the entire organization, and deals with its interface to its external environment. includes mission objectives and strategies.
defines the purpose the organization serves and identifies its services, products, and customers.
the purposes, goals, and desired results for the organization and its parts.
the activities by which the organization adapts to its environment to achieve its objectives.
consists of intermediate and short term planning
hierarchy of objectives
a network with broad goals at the top level of the organization and narrower goals for individual divisions, departments, or employees
coordinating departments to ensure harmony rather than conflict or competition.
guideline for setting objectives
(sbskoif) select key performance areas for objective, be specific, if possible, set challenging objectives, keep objective area in balance, objectives should be measurable, involve employees in setting objectives and follow up.
standing plans or repeat-use plans
plans that are used repeatedly over a period of time.
provides consistency among decision makers.
a policy that is invariable enforced. rules are inflexible requirements and are much stronger than guidelines. it is important for supervisors to know when they can be flexible in promoting the objectives of their company and when they have to enforce rules.
steps to be performed when a particular course of actions is taken
developed to accomplish a specific purpose and then discarded after use.
a large-scale plan composed of a mix of objectives, policies, rules, and projects.
a distinct par of a program.
a forecast of expected financial performance over time.
a plan of activities to be performed and their timing.
identifies work stages and scheduled completion dates.
program evaluation and review technique (PERT)
shows relationship among a network of activities to determine the completion time of project.
the series of activities in a PERT network that comprise the longest route, in terms of time, to complete the job