Steps of the Scientific Method
State the research question; choose the design and methods; test the hypothesis; interpret the data; disseminate the findings.
A prediction, based on observation, previous research, and theory.
Manipulates a cause to determine its effect.
Refers to producing consistent results from one time to another.
Reliability that measures whether the same score is achieved on multiple attempts.
Alternate Forms Reliability
Reliability referring to whether the same results are found on different versions of the test.
Internal Consistency Reliability
Reliability of whether questions within the test correlate.
Refers to a test actually measuring the construct it is intended to measure especially upon replication.
Validity based in individual test items that measure what they are supposed to.
Validity based in individual test items appropriately grouped into underlying categories (such as traits).
Validity based in results that are related to responses on another measurement.
Validity of results from random sampling for broad generalization.
Direct self-report; indirect questions/projective tests; Behavioral Measures; Physiological Methods (EKG, etc.)
Examines relationships among two or more variables; no manipulation of the variables, but just recording and statistical manipulation of data.
Adds strength and direction to statements about relationships; ranges from -1 to 1.
+/- .0 to .29
+/- .3 to .69