A locally organized set of claims/statements/assertions that seek to describe and meaningfully explain relationships.
Quality of a theory that infers it can be tested through research to accurately predict or disconfirm.
Quality of a theory that infers that it applies to a variety of circumstances/behaviors.
Quality of a theory: it is logical and relevant and can be used to assess and help clients; the art of personality.
Quality of a theory: it explains a variety of circumstances briefly and coherently in simple language.
Quality of a theory: offers a generative basis for future research.
A main paradigm; focuses on an unconscious conflict and the past.
A main paradigm; focuses more on the present and patterns of development.
A main paradigm; focuses on identifying systematic dimensions, consistency, and measurement; most widely researched.
A main paradigm; influences whose adaptive expression can be modified by experience in the real world.
A main paradigm; focuses on what can be seen as a result of rewards and punishments.
Learning & Social Learning
A main paradigm; personality results from rewards and punishments, as well as self-regulation.
A main paradigm; including personal experiences, thought, and goals.
A main paradigm; based on the assumption that people are good, healthy, motivated, and introspective.
Eclectic Combination Agreement
Most theorists agree that biology, childhood, and culture are somehow important for personality development; yet, theorists differ on many other things: nature v. nurture, etc.
Using whatever is available, and not being selective about application of theories, assessments, and therapies.
Being carefully selective about the source, value, and application of theories, assessments, and/or therapies.
The world has the characteristics of a human or a spirit.
Knowledge is acquired through revelation of experience, such as through symbols/love.
Formism (Artisan Making Products from the Same Plan)
Forms exist in nature that are manifested in entities, making them similar or different.
Mechanism (The Machine)
Forces are transmitted to produce effects.
Organicism (The Organism)
Stages of development result in the emergence of the previously concealed organic structure.
Contextualism (The Historical Event or Present Event)
Situations change as events unfold through episodes that influence other events.
Entails combining the best ideas from many theories for a complete analysis.
Respects the contributions of various theories and accepts their coexistence.
Theory focusing on a specific aspect of personality.
Theory that is large and unified that combines the diverse biopsychosocial approaches into one organized and integrated whole.