Chapter 1 The Human Body: An Orientation

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Human Anatomy and Physiology Eighth Edition

Anatomy

the study of structures and their relationships

Physiology

the study of how body parts function

Levels of Organization

Chemical, Cellular, Tissue, Organ, Organ System, Organismal

Tissues

Epithelial, Muscle, Connective, Nervous

Organ Sytems

Integumentary, Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, Endocrine, Cardiovascular, Lymphatic, Respiratory, Digestive, Urinary, Reproductive

Life Processes

Metabolism, Responsiveness, Movement, Growth, Differentiation, Reproduction

Metabolism

sum of all chemical reactions that transport energy

Two types of metabolism

Catabolism and Anabolism

Catabolism

large molecules broke down into small molecules to relase energy

Anabolism

small molecules build to form large molecules using energy from catabolism

ATP

stored energy

Responsiveness

ability to detect and respond to internal and external changes

Differentiation

change in function

Homeostasis

maintain stable internal environment within physical limits

Negative feedback

do something to stop something ex. temp control

Positive feedback

building on the same action, ex. child birth

Anterior

Front

Posterior

back

Dorsal

back

Ventral

front

Medial

middle

Lateral

away from the middle

Superior

above

inferior

below

Distal

further away from the point of origin

Proximal

closer to the point of origin

Superficial

near the surface

Deep

away from the surface

Sagittal Plane

longitudinal, divides the body left and right

Transverse Plane

Cross, divides the body top and bottom aka superior and inferior

Frontal Plane

Coronal, divides the body front and back aka anterior and posterior

Oblique Plane

divides through the body at an angle

Dorsal Cavity

cavity consisting of the cranial and vertebral cavity

Ventral cavity

cavity consisting of the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity

Thoracic Cavity (4)

L and R pleural cavities, Mediastinal cavity and Pericardial cavity

L and R Pleural Cavities

cavities of the lungs

Mediastinal Cavity

Cavity with the esohagus and trachea

Pericardial Cavity

Cavity of ther heart

Serous membranes

lines the cavities or covers the organs

Parietal membranes

lines the cavities

Visceral membranes

covers the organs

Pleura

lungs

pericardium

heart

peritoneum

abdominopelvic

Serous fluid

fluid filling the space in between the membranes

Quadrants

RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, LLQ

Nine Regions

R and L Hypochondriac, R and L Lumbar, R and L Iliac, Epigastric, Umbilical, Hypogastric

Hydrophilic

Water loving phosphate

Hydrophobic

water fearing phosphate

Cell Structure

membranous, nucleus, cytoplasm, Endoplasmic reticulum, Vessicles, Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes, Perioxosomes, Ribosomes, Mitochondria, Cytoskeleton

Function of membrane in cell

regulates the passage of subtstances, made of phospolipid bilayer

H2O, O2, CO2

pass freely by diffusion

Diffusion

movement from higher concentration to lower concentration

Nucleus is made up of

phospholipid bilayer, Muclear envelope, DNA, Nucleolus

Nucleolus

Packed area of ribosomes (RNA)

Function of nucleus

DNA replication by mitosis, protein synthesis

Cytoplasm

area inside cell region containing organelles, provides medium for transport, provides pressure to keep cell expanded

Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum

function is lipid/fat synthesis

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

contains ribosomes on the outer membrane, continuous with the nuclear envelope, function is protein synthesis

Golgi Apparatus

membranous, function is repacking and distributing -proteins and lipids from vessicles pinches off secretory vessicles sending to proper destination

Lysosomes

contain a digestive enzyme that eat away at membrane to release proteins and lipids

Perioxisomes

Peroxide

Ribosomes

membranous, protein synthesis

Mitochondria

membranous, inner membrane is folded because it is bigger than outer membrane, site of cellular respiration, ATP production, Energy molecule of cell, has its own DNA can self replicate

Cytoskeleton

a microscopic network of actin filaments and microtubules in the cytoplasm of many living cells that gives the cell shape and coherence

CIlia

Hairlike moves the environment

Flagella

whiplike, moves the cell

Centrioles

nonmembranous, found near the the nucleus, produce microtubules to form the mitotic spindle

Hypertonicity

higher concentration outside

Hypotonicity

lower concentration outside

Isotonicity

equal concentration

Passive transport

no energy required

Facilitated diffusion

uses a carrier molecule

Active transport

requires energy

Endocytosis

engulfing

Phagocytosis

engulfing solid

Pinocytosis

engulfing liquid

Atrophy

shrink smaller than normal

Hypertrophy

larger than normal

Adenine attaches to

Thymine

Guanine attaches to

Cytosine

DNA Helicase

unzips the nucleotide bond

DNA Ligase

repairs damaged DNA

How many pairs of chromosomes

23

Interphase

G1 S G2 Growth DNA replication preparation for mitosis

Early Prophase

Chromatin condenses froming chromosomes, froming the mitotic spindle

Late Prophase

nuclear envelope fragments

Metaphase

two centrosomes are at opposite poles of the cell, chromsomes cluster at the middle

Anaphase

Chromsomes split

Telophase

cell begin to split, frominga cleavage furrow

Transcription

involves the transfer of information froma a DNA's base sequence to the complimentary base sequence of an mRNA

Translation

takes a message in one language abd restates it in another

Mitosis

series of events that parcel out the replicated DNA of the mother cell to two daughter cells

Major Groups that cause disease

Viruses, Fungi, Protozoa, Parasites, proteins

Prokaryotes

have fimbriae, pilus, smaller ribosomes, endospores, DNA in nucleoid and plasmid, single circular chromosomes

Eukaryotes

Cilia, bigger ribosomes, cytoskeleton, many linear chromosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, have nucleus

Both Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

Glycocalyx, Flagella, Cell Wall, Plasma membrane

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