The Confederation Congress
by the mid 1780's this group of delegates became very unpopular among colonists, causing its members to have to leave Philadelphia and take refuge in New Jersey and New York, away from army veterans demanding to be paid. (established by articles, weak not effective)
the most resourceful advocate of a stronger national government, son of a merchant, he first became a successful New York lawyer, and was one of the men who called for a national convention to overhaul the Articles of Confederation. (1st secretary of treasury)
an ally of Hamilton's, he persuaded the Virginia legislature to convene an interstate conference on commercial questions, but only a few delegates attended the conference. Instead, a plan was made for delegates of all states to meet in Philadelphia the next year (led Constitutional Convention)
wealthy, relatively young, well educated men (55), who met at Philadelphia to discuss the plan of government in the colonies.
the meeting of state delegates, to discuss the government in the colonies, was led by Washington, they ruled that each state delegation would have a single vote and that major decisions would require majority, and all believed that there was a need for a stronger central government
a plan by James Madison, for a new "national" government, its controversial ideas causing much debate at the convention. It called for a legislature of two houses; the lower house would be represented in proportion of population, and the upper house was elected by the lower. But this idea favored larger states over smaller.
delegate of Virginia, opened the debate over the Virginia Plan, by saying that a national government ought to have a supreme Legislative, Executive and Judiciary. The ideas discussed were accepted by the delegates who were so committed to fundamental reform.
delegate of New Jersey, proposed an alternative to the Virginia Plan, whose plan changed little about the government system, and was rejected at the convention.
The New Jersey Plan
retained the essence of the existing system with its one-house legislature in which all states had equal representation, but which would have given Congress expanded powers to tax and to regulate commerce.
The Great Compromise
a decision made by the grand committee, called for a two house legislature; the lower house representatives would be based on population (each slave would be counted as 3/5 a free person in determining the basis for representation and taxation), in the upper house states would be represented equally with two members apiece.
since sovereignty could not exist on both national and state levels; Madison decided that all levels of government would flow directly from the people, thus leading to the division of powers discussed in the Constitution.
Checks and Balances
to assure the people that with a large government, the chances of corruption would decrease, because all centers of power would prevent any single despotic authority, through the competition between the three forces of government and their subdivisions.
supporters of the constitution, included Washington and Franklin, this term meant anyone who was against centralization and a "nationalist" government.
one of the three men that supported Federalists and wrote a series of essays discussing the virtues of the Constitution, under the pseudonym Plubius.
The Federalists Papers/ Publuis
truly written by James Madison, John Jay, and Alexander Hamilton , was a series of essays widely published in newspapers throughout the nation, explaining the meaning and virtues of the constitution, later being used as a book.
the name Federalists had for their critics, suggesting that they only offered opposition, represented by Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry, saw themselves as true defenders of the Revolution, believing that the constitution would betray those principals.
an anti federalist, believing that a federalist government would increase taxes, weaken the states, wield dictatorial powers, favor the "well born" over the common people and abolish individual liberty.
an anti federalist, whose biggest complaint about the constitution was that it lacked a bill of rights and that only by giving natural rights to the people, could there be any certainty that those rights would be protected.
The Bill of Rights
to legitimize the Constitution, these amendments were approved by congress, making the first ten amendments those which forbid Congress from infringing on fundamental rights ( freedom of religion, speech, and the press), immunity from arbitrary arrest, trial by jury and others.
The Judiciary Act of 1789
Congress provided for a Supreme Court of six members and a system of lower district courts and courts of appeal, also giving the Supreme Court the power to make the final decisions in cases involving the constitution or state laws.
Massachusetts federalists, named by Washington as secretary of war, when Congress created the three basic executive departments; state, treasury, and war.
a Virginian, chosen by Washington to serve as the first secretary of state in one of the executive departments created by Congress.
Reports on Manufactures
a plan on Alexander Hamilton, which he believed would not only raise needed money, but also protect domestic industries from foreign competition, outlined a plan for stimulation the growth of industry and spoke glowingly of the advantages to society of a healthy manufacturing sector.
The Bank of the U.S.
an idea created by Hamilton, and debated by many, as the constitution did not give Congress the powers to create a national bank, but it was accepted and passed by Washington, and operations began in 1791.
The first party system
since Federalists appeared to their critics to be creating such a menacing and tyrannical structure of power, a new, opposing political organization was created; Republican. They created vehicles of influence; forming committees, societies, and caucuses, and began banding together to influence state and local elections. Neither Federalists nor Republicans would admit that the other exists or was a political party.
when farmers in western Pennsylvania challenged the federal authority by refusing to pay a new whiskey tax and began terrorizing tax collectors, the federal government, in command of Washington, sent a militia of three states, causing the rebellion to collapse. (showed strength of new govt)
didn't accomplish the goals Congress had set, but this long and complex treaty did manage to end conflict with Britain, avoiding a likely war. Establishing complete American sovereignty over the Northwest and producing a commercial relationship between the U.S. and Great Britain.
negotiated and created a settlement, or treaty with Spain, in 1795, called Pinckney's treaty.
under this settlement, Spain recognized the right of Americans to navigate the Mississippi to its mouth and to deposit goods at New Orleans for reloading on oceangoing ships, agreed to make Florida's northern boundary at the 31 parallel, and commanded its authorities to prevent the Indians in Florida from launching raids north across the border.
1. under this settlement, Spain recognized the right of Americans to navigate the Mississippi to its mouth and to deposit goods at New Orleans for reloading on oceangoing ships, agreed to make Florida's northern boundary at the 31 parallel, and commanded its authorities to prevent the Indians in Florida from launching raids north across the border.
French foreign minister demanded a loan for France and a bribe for French officials before any negotiations would begin, but Pinckney denied him the commission.
the publishing of the incident between Pinckney and Talleyrand, in which Adams deleted the French commissioners names and replaced them with X, Y, and Z. This provoked popular outrage at France's actions and strong popular sport for the Federalists' response, causing the U.S. and France to be in undeclared war for the next two years.
The quasi war
the name for the conflicts between the new U.S. navy, which captured French ships, and the French (undeclared war). During this time, the U.S. began cooperating with G. Britain, until new negotiations with Napoleon Bonaparte ended the conflict and established new commercial arrangements.
The alien sedition acts
created by Federalists to silence Republican opposition, these new acts; created obstacles for foreigners who wished to become American citizens, and allowed those engaged in libel and treason to be prosecuted.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolution acts
when republican leaders looked for ways to reverse the Alien and Sedition Acts, Jefferson and Madison drafted a set of resolutions, using the ideas of John Locke and the tenth amendment to argue that the federal government had formed a compact that limited powers. (right of states to declare law null and void)
the republican party's vice presidential candidate, tied with Jefferson through electoral votes, decided by Federalist Congressman, Burr was believed to not be able to handle presidency, and Jefferson became president, but Burr did become the 2nd vice president of the U.S.
an organization of Revolutionary war veterans, in New York, who were mobilized by Burr, and served as the Republican political machine, causing Burr to win this state in the presidential election.
The Judiciary Act of 1801
in the last months of the Adams administration, federalists in the Judiciary branch passed this (to keep control of judiciary), which reduced the number of Supreme Court justices by one and greatly increased the number of federal judgeships as a whole, and federalists were appointed to these new positions.
appointed by Adams to be chief justice of the Supreme Court, a position he held for 34 years.
Marshall who served as Supreme Court justice for 34 years, faced charges that he stayed up until midnight on his last day in office to finish signing the new judges' commissions.