Science Mid Term Exam

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What was Alfred Wegeners hypothesis

Continental Drift

How many landmasses did the continents once form?

One

What was the hypothesis that happened to all the continents?

They broke up and drifted to their current locations

How did fossils support Wageners theory?

It explains why animals and species are on opposite sides of the ocean.

What are three kinds of evidence that support the theory?

1.Fossils
2.Rock
3.Climate conditions

What was the name of the landmass that contained all continents?

Pangea

Sea Floor Spreading

Process of forming new oceanic lithosphere as magma rises to the surface

Mid Ocean Ridges

Areas where sea floor spreading takes place

Magnetic Reversal

Process that happens when Earths magnetic poles change place

Continental Drift

The theory that explains how continents reached their current locations

The theory that Earth is divided into places that move around

Plate tectonics

The place where tectonic plates touch

Tectonic boundary

Three types of tectonic plate boundaries

1. Convergent Boundary
2.Divergent Boundary
3.Transform boundary

The three ways tectonic plates can move relative to each other

Collide, Separate, Slide

Boundary formed when tectonic plates collide

Convergent boundary

Boundary formed when tectonic plates separate

Divergent boundary

Boundary formed when tectonic plates slide past each other horizontally

Transform Boundary

What type of boundary makes an earthquake

Transform Boundary

When rock is heated, it becomes less dense and tends to ______

rise

When rock cools, it becomes more dense and tends to ___________

sink below the surface

Density changes in the asthenosphere are caused by the flow of _______ energy from deep within the Earth.

thermal

Plate motion due to higher densities

Slab pull

Plate motion due to gravity

Ridge push

Plate motion due to the heating cooling of rocks

Convection

Tectonic plates move _______ per year

centimeters

What do scientists use to measure the rate of tectonic plate movement

The global positioning system

What is the amount of force placed on a given material called

stress

What is the name of the process by which the shape of a rock changes because of stress?

deformation

What is it called when stress squeezes an object?

Compression

What is it called when stress stretches an object?

Tension

What can form when compression squeezes rocks at a convergent place boundary?

Large mountains can form

What type of stress occurs at a divergent boundary

Tension occurs

The bending of rock layers due to stress is known as

folding

When rock layers break the resulting surfaces they break and slide on is a

fold

When tension pulls rocks apart, it creates a

normal fault

When compression pushes rocks together it creates a

reverse fault

What is created when opposing forces causes rock to break and move horizontally

strike slip fault

When tectonic plates collide, folds ad faults can become

mountain ranges

What type of mountain range is formed when tension causes large blocks of crust to drop down?

Fault Block mountains

What kind of mountain is formed when magma rises to the surface and erupts

Volcanic Mountains

Appalachian Mountains are

folded mountains

Tetons are

fault block mountains

Ring of Fire is

Volcanic mountains

Tectonic Plates consist of

both continental and oceanic crust

The deep interior of the earth can be mapped using

seismic waves

New oceanic lithosphere forms as a result of

sea floor spreading

A result of plates moving along a transform boundary is

earthquakes

The process of sea floor spreading produces what physical feature

mid ocean ridge

The process of subduction produces what physical feature

trenches

When two plates of continental lithosphere collide, they form _______

mountains

At a transform boundary, what physical feature is evident

Fracture Zone

Mantle

They layer of rock that comprises 67% of Earth's mass

Core

The layer of earth made mostly of iron

Crust

The thin and solid outermost layer above the mantle

Lithosphere

The rigid layer made up of crust and upper mantle

Asthenosphere

The layer made of solid rock that slowly flows

Continental Drift

Hypothesis that states that the continents were once one large mass that broke apart

Sea floor spreading

Process that takes place at mid ocean ridges

Magnetic Minerals

part of molten rock at mid ocean ridges

Magnetic reversal

process of Earths magnetic poles changing places

Fossils

Items that provide evidence that the continent were once closer together

Convergent Boundary

Where two plates collide

Divergent Boundary

Where two plates are moving away from each other

Transform Boundary

Where two plates are moving horizontally past each other

Convection

The process of moving layers of rock heating and cooling

Subduction Zone

Where denser oceanic lithosphere sinks beneath continental lithosphere

How does the chemical composition of the different layers (crust, mantle, and core) vary

They have different densities
-The core being most dense, crust being least
-Core has lots of iron making it dense

How is the magnetic field of the earth produced

By the magnetic poles when they revers our compasses are then read opposite

What are magnetic Stripes

-Have minerals in them
-When it moves it is recorded
-It proves SFS

What causes weather

Sun

What are the various aspects of weather

There is natural conditions

Disconformity

a missing layer of rock

relative dating

the process of figuring out if an object is older or younger than another

superposition

the idea that younger rocks lie on top of older rocks

unconformity

a break in the geologic record

angular uncomformity

the process of wearing down a missing layer that exists between horizontal and folded rock layers

How are rock layers arranges in the geologic column

oldest rocks are on the bottom, youngest are on the top

How does a geologist know that rock layers are undisturbed

Rock layers are horizontal

What is a fault?

a break in the earths crust

What is the most common type of unconformity

a disconformity

What causes all weather

the sun

How are trade winds formed bases on convection and the difference in air pressure

The earths rotation and air pressure is involved when the low pressure has high pressure pushing against it, making it form wind.

How is differences in heating of land and water as well as difference in pressure cause the breezes to form

A sea breeze is a breeze coming from the sea, which makes the water cooler, the high pressure sinks then heats the land, then rises again. The land heats faster because the sun only has to hear the top surface and the water moves, making it harder to heat.

When changes in pressure, temperature, or chemical make up alter a rock, _________ takes place

metamorphism

Two minerals that may be left behind when a body of salt water evaporates

Gypsum and Halite

Gemstones such as topaz may form in teardrop shaped bodies called

pegmatites

Two minerals that crystallize out of ground water that has been heated by magma

Gold and Copper

What are three types of rocks

1. Igneous
2. Metamorphic
3. Sedimentary

Seven Layers of the Rock Cycle

1. Weathering and erosion
2. Deposition
3. Compaction
4. Heat and Pressure
5. Melting
6. Cooling
7. Solidifying

How is Igneous rock formed

When magma rises towards the surface and cools

How does metamorphic rock formed

When heat and pressure is applied to sedimentary and igneous rock

How is sedimentary rock formed

When compacting of existing rocks they are weathered and eroded into tiny particles, then are pressured which creates rock

Two major causes of mass extinction

1. Mass weather change
2. Meteorite

What are two things that makes different minerals unique?

Composition- shape, color, etc
Place of origin

Tectonic Plates float on

the asthenosphere

Crust moves sideways because of

convection

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