Biology Chapter 2-5 Ecology 9th Grade Study Guide

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Biotic factor

living factor

Abiotic Factor

nonliving factor

Niche

all the strategies and adaptations a species uses in its environment, how it meets its specific needs for food and shelter, how and where it survives, and where it reproduces.

Habitat

is the place where an organism lives out its life.

Population

group of organisms, which are all the same species and interbreed and live in the same area.

Community

interacting populations in a certain area.

food chain

simple model that shows how matter and energy move through an ecosystem.

food web

model that shows all the possible feeding relationships at each trophic level in a community

Autotroph

An organism that uses light energy stored in chemical compounds to make energy-rich compounds, the ultimate energy source for this organism is the sun.

Heterotroph

An organism that can't make its own food and feeds on other organisms.

Autotroph

producer

Heterotroph

consumer

Mutualism

both species benefit from the relationship

Commensalism

one species benefits while the other is neither harmed nor benefit from the relationship.

Parasitism

one species benefits as the expense of the other species that is harmed from the relationship

Mutualism

the sea anemones and hermit crab; the sea anemones give protection to the crab using its stinging cells, and it remolds its shell to fit the crab while the hermit crab allows the sea anemones to consume the remains of its food, thus it also provides the sea anemones with food supply, which makes it a relationship beneficial to both.

Commensalism

Starlings and other birds are often seen feeding on insects amid cattle in the pasture. The feeding cattle stir up the insects and the birds catch them. This helps the birds and doesn't affect the cattle.

Parasitism

tick and dog, the tick feeds on the dog's blood, while the dog is harmed from the tick

Primary succession

process in which the 1st groups of organisms colonize a barren landscape

Secondary succession

series of community changes that take place on a previously colonized, but disturbed or damaged habitat

What are usually the 1st organisms to emerge from a barren area?

Lichen

Ecosystem

system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their environment.

Exponential growth

Increasing unlimited growth

Linear growth

growth at a constant pace

Slow life-history patterns

these patterns are common among organisms that live in stable environments, these organisms typically reproduce and mature slowly, and are long- lived. Ex: Humans, elephants, bears

Rapid life-history patterns

these patterns are common among organisms from changing environments. These organisms typically are small, mature fast, reproduce early, and have a short life span. Ex: mosquitoes

Density-dependent factors

these factors have a greater effect as the population grows. Ex: disease, competition, predators, and food.

Density-independent factors

these factors affect populations regardless of their size. Ex: floods, fires, volcano eruptions, drought, pesticides

How can food supply affect the carrying capacity of a habitat?

Typically, a population grows exponentially, overshoots the carrying capacity, limiting factors bring it back down, and then the population fluctuates around its carrying capacity.

What is the relationship between limiting factors and carrying capacity?

Limiting factors, such as availability of food, disease, predators, or lack of space, will cause population growth to slow, because the carrying capacity of the habitat has been reached.

How do birthrate and death rate each affect the growth of a population?

Unless the PGR becomes negative (everywhere) the population continues to grow. When the birthrate is higher than the death rate, the population will increase. When the population's death rate is larger than the birthrate, the population will decrease.

Why is biodiversity important?

It is important because it brings stability; Ecosystems are stable if their biodiversity is maintained.

Biodiversity

variety of species in a specific area

Explain how land that gets broken up can contribute to loss of species diversity.

This can contribute to: Increased extinction of local species. Disruption of ecological processes. New opportunities for invasions by other species, Increased risk of fire. Changes in local climate.

Habitat fragmentation

separation of wilderness areas from other areas.

Edge Effect

the areas where one habitat or ecosystem meets another. Ex: Where water meets land

Explain how change in an ecosystem's edges can affect organisms.

when it changes, animals from one area might migrate into another, thereby bringing species from different ecosystems in contact with one another.

How can exotic species affect populations of native species?

These species are species that are introduced on purpose or by accident to a new area. When this happens, they can grow exponentially and can cause serious harm to native species in this area.

Conservation biology

is the study and implementation of methods to protect biodiversity

Ecology

is the study of the relationships between organisms and their environments.

How does the US endangered Species Act help to protect or preserve endangered species?

US Endangered Species Act became law in 1973. It made it illegal to harm any species on the endangered or threatened list, and made it illegal for federal agencies to fund any project that would harm organisms on there lists.

How can habitat degradation cause changes in an area's biodiversity?

It is the damage to a habitat by pollution. Ex: Air, water, and land pollution, acid precipitation, UV waves. It limits or eliminates resources for species that exist in the ecosystem.

Draw and label a pyramid that includes a mice, grass, snakes, fox, 2nd order heterotrophs, autotrophs, 1st order heterotrophs, 3rd order heterotrophs.

grass- autotroph
mice-1st order heterotrophs
snake-2nd order heterotrophs
fox-3rd order heterotrophs

Carrying capacity

is the number of organisms of one species that an area can support

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