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Dionysus

god of wine, fertility, and parties

Dionysian Festival

started in Spring; main attraction theater, exultation of soul; dancing and screaming

Greek actors

only men, first to use them was Thespis (only 2 at a time), men that didn't hit puberty played women parts

masks

most essential part. simple, personalized to each character, showed status, made up linen, wood, or leather

Thespis

inventor of tragedy, poet, playwright, chorus leader, created actors/actor troupe, introduced masks, make up and costumes

Sophocles

famous Greek author; height of Greek Tragedy; born in Athens; soldier, general, then government official; used irony; actors chief elements of his plays; 7 plays remain

chorus

consisted of Athenian men and women, 12-15 singers and dancers, provided background info, narrates & reflects, represents society

prologue

dialogue spoken by 1 or 2 people, background info, foreshadows

epilogue

spoken by Chorus of individual actor (or both), closure, moral of story/wisdom, what happens in the future

parados

comes after prologue, chorus, sung and some dance

exodos

dialogue or maybe song while walking offstage, words of wisdom, before epilogue, done by Chorus

strophe

first movement of Chorus in an ode between episodes, chorus turns east to west (right to left) while singing

antistrophe

second movement response to the strophe, opposite of strophe, moves west to east (left to right)

tragic hero

neither a villain nor virtuous person, have/make a mistake (hamartia), doesn't need to die but he/she must undergo a change in fortune

tragic flaw (hamartia)

the great man falls because of some weakness of character, moral blindness, or error--usually hubris

arête

pursuit of excellence

hubris

excessive pride

ate

ruin, delusion (reckless behavior leads towards this)

apotheosis

ascension to god-like status (if lucky)

anagnoresis

change from ignorance to awareness (usually due to a horrible event or secret); recognition

peripeteia

the change in fortune that the tragic hero experiences; reversal

pathos

quality of evoking pity

catharsis

by raising the emotion of the audience, tragedy purges the audience of negative emotions; resulting in "purification"

Oracle of Delphi

most important shrine in Greece, built around sacred spring, ask Pythia/priestess questions about the future, pay a lot of money to get a good fortune, fortune in riddle form

Corinth

Oedipus's supposed birthplace (he thinks); rich, commercial center of ancient Greece

Thebes

rival of Athens, main setting for Oedipus the King, largest city in Greece

dramatic irony

audience knows something the character(s) don't know

allusion

reference to a literary or historical person or event to explain the situation

antagonist

a character or force in conflict with a main character

climax

point of greatest emotional intensity, interest, or suspense in the plot

conflict

the struggle between opposing forces in a story

denouement

falling action; unraveling of the story

exposition

the introduction

plot

the sequence of events

point of view

the perspective form which a story is told

protagonist

the main character in a literary work

resolution

part of the plot that concludes the falling action

rising action

the part of the plot that begins to occur as soon as the conflict is introduced

setting

the time and place of the action

theme

the central message, concern, or purpose of the story

tone

author's opinion towards/about the subject matter

genre

a category of literature characterized by any particular style, form, or content

low key lighting

when there is a lot of key light but very little fill light on the subject; used for comedies and less dramatic situations

high key lighting

when the key light and fill light are balanced; used for darker & dramatic situations, horrors/dramas/intensity

frontal lighting

lighting from the front; character appears harsh, unforgiving, featureless, scary, and unflattering

back lighting

lighting from behind; character appears threatening, superior/noble

Halloween lighting

lighting from underneath; character appears frightening

extreme long shot

supplies background info; humans too small; establishes general location, shows large scale action, contrast with person and environment

long shot

subjects recognizable; who, what, where

full shot

human from head to toe; background reduced; characters more in detail and used for action purposes

medium shot

from waist up; 2-3 characters max; interaction between characters or transition from long to close up

close up

a single face or object; background is eliminated; used for important, dramatic moments

extreme close up

part of face/object in great detail; used for symbolic value, importance of the use of an object, suspense, foreshadowing

low angle

camera is low to ground, looking up at subject; indicates character/subject is powerful, impressive, superior

high angle

camera is looking down at subject; character is weak or vulnerable

extreme high angle

camera is looking straight down (or nearly straight down) at subject; used for disorienting effect

Dutch angle

also known as the oblique angle; camera is tilted diagonally/shifted; used to hint that something strange is going on

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