head of persecuted religious sect, the Quakers, founder of pennsylvania
prosperous lawyer, governor, of Massachusetts Bay Colony for the first 2 decades, Puritan
settlers of Plymouth colony who viewed themselves as spiritual wanderers
new product after tobacco prices were dropping, those who grew it grew very wealthy, imported indentured servants for work, transformed west indies
first of New England settlements founded in 1620,
document which bound all signers to abide by decisions of the majority in Plymouth colony
lived in Boston, had family, worked as a midwife, held religious meetings in her home and denounced several ministers, sent to trial for sedition and was found guilty and banished from MA
marketable product shipped to England after being grown in Virginia, shaped every aspect of Virginian society (patterns of settlement and recruitment of colonists), caused a large labor force which was the key to this farming
Joint Stock Co.
companies who sold shares to investors to raise money for colonization
The first settlement in America
Va. House of Burgesses
the legislature of colonial Virginia, made in 1619, first institution of representative government in English colonies
founders of MA that shared beliefs with pilgrims but insisted Anglican church could not be reformed, went to New England to created godly churches as models for English reform
Englishman sailing for the dutch in 1609, discovered Hudson River, voyage gave claim to Connecticut, Hudson, and Delaware valleys
colony created by English monarch granted huge tract of land to a group of individuals who became lord proprietor, example: Maryland
French explorer who in 1608 led expedition 130 miles up St. Lawrence River to found Quebec
French mariner who made 3 voyages in search of rich mines, explored St. Lawrence river up to Montreal in search of Northwest Passage
individuals contracted to serve a master for a period of 4-7 years in return for payment of servant's passage to America
An English monarch who supported exploration in the late 15th century
Italian mariner who wanted to explore eastern Canada on England's behalf but no one would invest the funds necessary
sought by explorers for possible trade route but arctic ice prevented passage, sought for by cartier
an explorer from Spain that destroyed and took over the Incan empire
The "first" explorer to reach the Americas
A Spanish explorer that conquered the Aztec empire
A Spanish priest who tried to get equality between Indians and Spaniards
A new intellectual movement in Europe
Ferdinand and Isabella
monarchs of Spain during the late 15th century
warrior people of the Nahuatl people who established an empire in Mexico that was overthrown by Cortes in 1519
one of the largest mound building cities dominated Mississippi river valley but ecological crisis led to its fall
tribes of people categorized by their large earthworks constructed by members located in the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys
settled in farming communities near the four corners, lived in villages built on mesas and canyons, traded corn, cotton blankets, pottery and other goods with the apaches and navajos
Strong Indian tribe displaced by western expansion and weakened by disease and wars.
Economic system in 18th Century Europe to increase a nations wealth by gov. regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests.
Idea that the colonies benefited by being left alone, without too much British interference.
A printer who then did many things for the country.
Dominion of New England
British gov. combined the colonies of Mass, RI, NH, and CT, into a single province headed by royal governor Edmund Andros.
Religious revival in the American colonies of the 18th century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.
Battle of Quebec
Battle between Gen. Wolfe and Marquis de Montcalm which occurred at Quebec. Both died in battle, Quebec fell on Sept. 13, 1759.
Albany Plan of Union
Plan proposed by Ben Franklin in 1754 to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes. Plan turned down by the colonies and the Crown.
Treaty of Paris
a treaty that ended the American revolution between the English and the united states and its allies.
6-8 week journey that the slaves took on boat to get to America, had to stay below deck, many died
French and Indian War
A war in North America between France and Britain (both were helped by Indian tribes)
Laws passed by British to control colonial trade.
a british general who lead in battle of quebec against montcalm
Prime Minister of England during the French and Indian War. Increased the British troops and military supplies in the colonies, which is why England won the war.
French General defeated by James Wolfe, died in battle.
wrote the first draft of the Declaration of Independence
George Rogers Clark
in charge of third attempt to take detroit back from the British, captured three key British settlements
John Paul Jones
America's naval hero, privateer, captured 17 British ships including the HMS Serapis
young, wealthy, idealistic soldier of the Revolutionary war, worked for france and spread democractic ideals from America to France
the new monarch, naive of Britian, worked badly with America
was passed by parliament to raise money in America by requiring tax on legal documents, publications, and playing cards
Where washington and his troops settled during the winter
Defeat of Cornwallis by Washington
When English Troops fired on Boston Protesters, March 5, 1770
the battle in New York which marked the turning point in the american revolution where the americans defeated the British
Declaration of Independence
document in which the Second Continental Congress justifies its colonies' decision to renounce allegiance to the British Government
people who are payed by their country to pirate the ships of other countries
Boston Tea Party
When a group of radicals overtook a british tea boat and threw it all into the harbor
A pamphlet made by thomas paine.
A group of acts passed by Parliament in response to the Boston Tea Party. Americans saw this as a violation of their rights
The first President, a revolutionary general
Lexington and Concord
The first battles of the revolutionary war
hill located near Breed's hill where the first skirmish of colonists vs englishmen occured during the revolution war.
2nd continental congress
A meeting of delegates from the 13 colonies. The second Congress managed the colonial war effort, and moved incrementally towards independence, adopting the United States Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776.
olive branch petition
A rejected peace treaty by the colonies to england
An english thinker who made "Common Sense"
an English philosopher who came up with the "life, liberty, and the right to property"
When the French demanded bribes from the US
The power of states to call a law uncontitutional.
Va. and Ky. resolutions
Where nullification was created by madison and jefferson
A battle against Native Americans for control
a rebellion by farmers in pennsylvania in response to a tax on whiskey
alien and sedition acts
A law made the US government that contained many laws that curtailed citizens right of free speech, less rights for foreigners
A series of 85 papers made by madison
The power of the Supreme court to determine the constitutionality of a law
washington's Farewell address
Washington says that we should stay out of foreign affairs. We followed this until WWI
A great political thinker and 4th president.
where slaves counted towards ⅗
Our founding document. we still follow this.
legislation, banned slavery in Northwest territories, provided model for incorporating more northern states
land ordinance of 1785
Act under the Articles of Confederation, created grid system of surveys by which public land was made available for sale.
revolt made by impoverished farmers, sought to overthrow new state government, collapsed after defeat to authorities
Proposed plans to make the economy better.
articles of confederation
document, sets up loose confederation of states that comprised first national government of the United States
national bicameral legislature where all states are represented equally in a senate (upper house) while unequally in the house of representatives (lower house)
imposed high tariffs to protect workers from cheaper European products
judiciary act of 1789
Created the Legal System that we have today.
Bill of rights
The First 10 amendments to the Constitution.
government should be allowed to exercise very few implied powers so government remains small eg RON PAUL
congress should be allowed to exercise many implied powers so government can take a greater role in shaping events
Land bought by Jefferson in 1803 from Napolean
members of congress who aggressively pushed for a war against Britain after their election in 1810.
trail of tears
the trails that the Indians took from Georgia to Oklahoma (the west), 1838.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
supreme Court decision of 1819 that prohibited states from interfering with the privileges granted to a private corporation
James K. Polk
from Tennessee, expansionist who had the blessing of Jackson, the party's patriarch. "Polk Democrats." enabled democrats to campaign with much more enthusiasm. won against Clay, president. 11th president of the United States.
Martin Van Buren
professional politician, helped organize the first national campaign
Wm. L. Garrison
from Boston, wrote abolitionist paper
gained Texas, 10th president of the US, opposed to nationalism,
The practice of giving politically allied friends positions in ones administration.
proposed by Hamilton, a way to revitalize the economy.
treaty of ghent
Peace treaty for the War of 1812.
Lewis and Clark
led expedition into northern Louisiana, started off for military purposes, became an exploration
Marbury v madison
The court case that created Judiciary Review
Political Party developed in mid 1830s in opposition the Jacksonian Democrats. Offered an ordered vision of American progress and liberty. Captured office in 1840.
Elected president in 1828, he supported a small and limited federal government.
era of good feeling
Era in time where there were virtually no political parties. Monroe was president.
chief of justice, a federalist. federalists turned to him for help. claimed that Marbury had no jurisdiction in the Marbury v Madison case. created precedent of judicial review. not the first, father of supreme court, made it important part of gov
an imaginary line that states that above it are no slaves and below it slaves are allowed. There had to be equal numbers of these states
Agreement that demilitarized the border between the US and Canada
President during the Era of Good Feeling
John C. Calhoun
The Secretary of War who unsuccessfully ran for President
Monroe says "Americans are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European power"
The head of the nation's first state board of education, he was an education reformer
A free slave who founded the North Star, an abolitionist paper
Seneca Falls convention
A convention in New York to discuss women's rights
People who practiced celibacy and communal living
Founder of Mormonism
A women who led mental health reform
aka The Church of Later Day Saints,
A utopian community and farm established in 1841 near Boston.
A belief that centers on the Divinity of people and nature.
Brought textiles to US
The movement to limit or abolish alcohol consumtion
The maker of the Cotton Gin
Similar to "patriotism"
A canal built to lake Erie, which greatly decreased shipping costs and increased speed.
Gibbons v. Ogden
A Supreme Court Case that said that only Congress could decide about
female slave helped lead in underground railroad
virginia planter, supported agricultural reform
transport system, anti slavery groups helped assist fugitive slaves in the escape from the south
led the Nat Turner rebellion, uprising of slaves, 55 dead
One of the big crops in the south during the 1800s
War of 1812
A war between the United States and Great Britain.
Bank of the United States
Proposed by Hamilton to be the National bank.