H. Chemistry Midterm Review Chapters 1 and 2

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Volume

Extensive property of matter

Density

Intensive property of matter

b

The two most important properties of all matter are:
(a.) the ability to carry an electric current well and to hold electric charge
(b.) taking up space and having mass
(c.) being brittle and hard
(d.) being malleable and ductile

Atom

Smallest unit of matter that contains its chemical identity

Compound

A substance, made of two or more atoms that are chemically bonded, that can be broken down into simpler, stable substances

Mass

Measure of the quantity of matter

b

Matter includes all of the following except:
(a.) air
(b.) light
(c.) smoke
(d.) water vapor

d

A true statement about mass is that:
(a.) mass is often measured with a spring scale
(b.) mass is expressed in pounds
(c.) as the force of Earth's gravity on an object increases, the object's mass increases
(d.) mass is determined by comparing the mass of an object with a set of standard masses that are part of a balance

Mixture

A student recorded the following while completing an experiment.
Color of substance: yellow, shiny powder
Effect of magnet: yellow, shiny powder was attracted
The student should classify the substance as a(n)

d

Which of the following is not a physical change?
(a.) grinding
(b.) cutting
(c.) boiling
(d.) burning

c

Which of the following is not a chemical change?
(a.) rusting
(b.) igniting
(c.) melting
(d.) burning

Chemical Change

Occurs when a leaf changes color in the fall

Physical Change

Occurs when a glue gun melts a glue stick

Unreactive

Noble gases are in Group 18, and are best known because they are ___

Reactants

Nitrogen monoxide and oxygen, both colorless gases, form a red-brown gas when mixed. Nitrogen monoxide and oxygen are called the ___

Liquid

A state of matter in which a material has no definite shape but has a definite volume

b

Under ordinary conditions of temperature and pressure, the particles in a gas are:
(a.) closely packed
(b.) very far from one another
(c.) held in fixed positions
(d.) unevenly distributed

Liquid

State of matter with a definite volume but not a definite shape

Solid

Substance that always is the same shape regardless of its container

Plasma

Fourth state of matter in which atoms lose electrons

c

What happens to the energy in a substance when it changes state?
(a.) It is destroyed
(b.) It is changed into matter
(c.) It changes form, but it is neither destroyed nor increased
(d.) The energy remains unchanged

c

The only pure substance listed below is:
(a.) bread dough
(b.) vinegar (5% acetic acid)
(c.) vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
(d.) seawater

Mixture

A blend of any two or more kinds of matter, as long as each maintains its own unique properties

Homogenous

A mixture that is uniform in composition

Solution

Another name for a homogenous mixture

Heterogenous

A mixture that is not uniform throughout

Granite

Example of a heterogenous mixture

Air

Example of a homogenous mixture

Periodic Chart

All known chemical elements are organized into groups based on similar chemical properties in the ___

Groups

The vertical columns on the periodic table

Periods

The horizontal rows on the periodic table

d

It is easy to determine whether a substance is a metal if the substance is:
(a.) easy to break down into its components
(b.) very hard
(c.) very brittle
(d.) a good electrical and heat conductor

Brittle

A nonmetal is usually ___

Semiconductors

Metalloids are often ___

c

All of the following are steps in the scientific method except:
(a.) observing and recording data
(b.) forming a hypothesis
(c.) discarding data inconsistent with the hypothesis
(d.) developing a model based on experimental results

Quantitative

"The liquid boils at 100 degrees C" is an example of a ___ observation

Qualitative

"Salt crystals formed as the liquid evaporated" is an example of a ___ observation

Hypothesis

Statement that can be tested experimentally

Theory

A generalization that explains a body of known facts or phenomena

Theory

A plausible explanation of a body of observed natural phenomena

Theory

Accepted as the explanation of an observed phenomenon until repeated observations conflict with it

b

Standards of measurement are chosen because they:
(a.) can be related to everyday objects
(b.) are reproducible in another laboratory
(c.) cannot be destroyed by any common physical or chemical means
(d.) are easily changed

c

Which of these statements does not describe a measurement standard?
(a.) Measurement standards avoid ambiguity
(b.) Measurement standards must be unchanging
(c.) A standard can be easily changed to suit the experiment
(d.) Confusion is eliminated when the correct measurement is applied

c

Which of these statements about units of measurements is not true?
(a.) A unit compares what is being measured with a previously defined quality
(b.) A unit is usually preceded by a number
(c.) Measurements can be compared without knowing their units
(d.) The choice of unit depends on the quantity being measured

a

All of the following are examples of units except:
(a.) mass
(b.) kilometer
(c.) gram
(d.) ounce

c

Which of these if not an SI base unit?
(a.) kilogram
(b.) second
(c.) liter
(d.) Kelvin

Meter and second

The SI base units for length and time are ___

Centimeter

The metric unit for length that is closest to the diameter of a pencil

Millimeter

The symbol "mm" represents ___

km, m, cm, mm

The symbols for units of length in order from largest to smallest are ___

g

The metric unit used to measure mass

Density

Quantity of matter per unit volume

Volume

The unit m³ measures ___

1,000 cm³

The liter is defined as ___

Kilogram

The standard base unit for mass

1 cubic centimeter

A volume of 1 milliliter is equivalent to ___

mL

Symbol to represent a unit of volume

Second

The SI base unit for time is the ___

s

The abbreviation for the SI base unit of time

Meter

The most appropriate SI unit for measuring the length of an automobile

Meter

The SI base unit for length is the ___

d

All of the following are SI units for density except:
(a.) kg/m³
(b.) kg/L
(c.) g/cm³
(d.) g/m²

Weight

A change in the force of gravity on an object will affect its ___

Weight

A measure of Earth's gravitational pull of matter

Mass

Measure of the amount of material

d

Which of these statements about mass is true?
(a.) Mass is expressed in pounds or newtons
(b.) Mass is usually measured with a spring scale
(c.) The mass of an object depends on the force of gravity acting on it
(d.) The mass of an object is determined by comparing it to an object of known mass

Volume and mass

The pair of quantities that determines the density of a material

D=m/V

The relationship between mass m of a material, its volume V, and its density D is

b

The density of an object is calculated by
(a.) multiplying its mass times its volume
(b.) dividing its mass by its volume
(c.) dividing its volume by its mass
(d.) adding its mass to its volume

Temperature

When density is measured, its ___ should be specified

c

Which of these statements about density is true?
(a.) Larger objects are more dense
(b.) Density does not depend on temperature
(c.) Density is a physical property
(d.) The density of an object depends on the force of gravity

4.05 g

The density of aluminum is 2.70 g/cm³. What is the mass of a solid piece of aluminum with a volume of 1.5 cm³?

19.3 g/cm³

A sample of gold has a mass of 96.5 g and a volume of 5.00 cm³. The density of the gold is ___

0.071 cm³

The density of pure diamond is 3.5 g/cm³. What is the volume of the diamond with a mass of .25 g?

5.55 g/cm³

What is the density of 37.72 g of material whose volume is 6.80 cm³?

d

100 milliliters is equivalent to:
(a.) 1 hectoliter
(b.) 1 microliter
(c.) 1 centiliter
(d.) 1 deciliter

b

0.25 g is equivalent to:
(a.) 250 kg
(b.) 250 mg
(c.) 0.025 mg
(d.) 0.025 kg

d

0.05 cm is the same as:
(a.) 0.00005 m
(b.) 0.005 mm
(c.) 0.05 m
(d.) 0.5 mm

d

1.06 L of water is equivalent to:
(a.) 0.00106 mL
(b.) 10.6 mL
(c.) 106 mL
(d.) 1060 mL

500

The number of grams equal to 0.5 kg is ___

10080

Number of minutes in a week

91.4 cm

If 1 inch equals 2.54 cm, how many centimeters equal 1 yard?

Accurate

A measurement that closely agrees with an accepted value is best described as ___

b

A numerical result is said to have good precision if
(a.) it agrees closely with an accepted value
(b.) repeated measurements agree closely
(c.) it has a small number of significant figures
(d.) it is a large whole number

precise, but not accurate

These values were recorded as the mass of products when a chemical reaction was carried out three separate times: 8.83 g; 8.84 g; 8.82g. The mass of products from that reaction is 8.60 g. The values are __

Poor precision

A chemist obtained the values 5.2246g, 5.2353 g, and 5.2501 g for the mass of a sample. Without knowing the true mass of the sample, it can be said that these values have ___

b

For numbers less than 0.1, such as 0.06, the zeros to the right of the decimal point but before the first nonzero digit:
(a.) are significant
(b.) show the decimal place of the first digit
(c.) show that the zero on the left side of the decimal is not significant
(d.) show uncertainty

0.036 g

The measurement 0.035550 g rounded off to two significant figures would be ___

c

When adding numbers the sum should be rounded so that the final digit is in the same place as the:
(a.) rightmost digit of the numbers added
(b.) last digit in the longest number added
(c.) leftmost digit of the numbers added
(d.) lefmost digit of the shortest number added

3

The number of significant figures in the measurement 0.000305 kg is ___

3

The number of significant figures in the measured value 0.0320 g is ___

b

Which of these measurements has been expressed to three significant figures?
(a.) 0.052 g
(b.) 0.202 g
(c.) 3.065 g
(d.) 500 g

c

Which of these measurements has been expressed to four significant figures?
(a.) 0.0020 mm
(b.) 0.0402 mm
(c.) 30.00 mm
(d.) 402.10 mm

3

The number of significant figures in the measurement 2010 cm is ___

a

Which of these measurements has only nonsignificant zeros?
(a.) 0.0037
(b.) 60.0
(c.) 400.
(d.) 506

17.2 cm²

Using a metric ruler with 1 mm divisions, the sides of a rectangular piece of plywood were measured as 3.54 cm and 4.85 cm, which corresponds to an area of 17.1690 cm². What is the area expressed correctly?

3

When 64.4 is divided by 2.00, the correct number of significant figures in the result is ___

4.1 cm³

The dimensions of a rectangular solid are measured to be 1.27 cm, 1.3 cm, and 2.5 cm. The volume should be recorded as ___

4.5 g

Three samples of 1.12g, 1.8 g, and 1.562 g are mixed together. The combined mass of the three samples, expressed to the correct number of significant figures, would be recorded as ___

3

When 5.7 is divided by 2 s, the quotient is correctly reported as ___ m/s

74

The product of 13 cm and 5.7 cm is correctly reported as ___ cm²

1.246 x 10⁸

What is 1.245633501 x 10⁸ rounded to four significant figures?

3

How many significant figures would the answer to the following calculation have?

3.475 x 1.97 + 2.4712

2

How many significant digits should be shown in the product of 1.6 cm and 2.4 cm?

9.30 x 10⁻³

How would 0.00930 m be expressed in scientific notation?

3 x 10⁵

The speed of light is 300,000 km/s. In scientific notation, this speed is written to one significant figure as ___

3.86 x 10⁵

The average distance between the Earth and the moon is 386,000 km. Expressed in scientific notation, this distance would be expressed as ___

1 x 10⁻⁴

An analytical balance can measure mass to the nearest 0.0001 g. In scientific notation, the accuracy of the balance would be expressed as ___

2.8 x 10⁻⁹

When 1.92 x 10⁻⁶ kg is divided by 6.8 x 10² mL, the quotient equals ___

4.3 x 10⁻⁷

When 6.02 x 10²³ is divided by 9.1 x 10⁻³¹, the product is ___

10¹⁰

The result of dividing 10⁷ by 10 ⁻³ is ___

2.5 x 10⁻²

The capacity of a Florence flask is 250 mL. Its capacity in liters expressed in scientific notation is ___

Constant

If values for x and y vary as an inverse proportion, their product is a ___

Quotient

Two variables are directly proportional if their ___ has a constant value

A straight line

The graph of two variables that are directly proportional to one another is ___

Product

Two variables are inversely proportional if their ___ has a constant value

A hyperbola

The graphs of two variables that are inversely proportional to one another is ___

c

Which of these statements about y=kx is not true?
(a.) y is directly proportional to x
(b.) x is a variable
(c.) The product of y and x is a constant
(d.) The graph of y versus x is be a straight line

d

Which of these equations does not describe an inverse proportionality between x and y?
(a.) xy=k
(b.) x=k/y
(c.) y=k/x
(d.) k=x/y

a

Which of the following does not describe a direct proportionality between x and y?
(a.) xy=k
(b.) x/y=k
(c.) y/x=k
(d.) x=ky

d

In the equation density=mass/volume, mass divided by volume has a constant value. This means that the:
(a.) equation graphs as a straight line
(b.) variables mass and volume are inversely proportional
(c.) equation graphs as a hyperbola
(d.) product of mass and volume is a constant

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