Ch.1 Biology: Exploring life

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biosphere

The _______,which consists of all the environments on Earth that support life

ecosystem

________which consists of all the organisms living in a particular area, as well as the nonliving

community

The entire array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem is called a _____

population

A _____ consists of all the individuals of a species living in a specified area

organism

an individual living thing

organ system

consists of several organs that work together in performing specific functions

tissues

Each organ is made up of several different _____ , each with a specific function and made up of a group of similar cells

membrane

A cell is separated from its environment by a boundary called a ________

organelle

A ______ is a membrane bound structure that performs a specific function in a cell

molecule

A _______ is a cluster of atoms held together by chemical bonds

cell

Life emerges at the level of the ____

emergent properties

New properties that emerge with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases

producers

Plants and other photosynthetic organisms are the _______ that provide the food for a typical ecosystems

consumers

The ______ of the ecosystems eat plants and other animals.

oxygen, carbon dioxide

All animals take in ______, and release ______. Their wastes return other chemicals to the environment

decomposers

________ act as recyclers , changing complex matter into simpler mineral nutrients that plants can use

recycling of nutrients, flow of energy

The dynamics of ecosystems include two major processes ___________ and _________

chemical nutrients, chemical energy

_________ is recycled WITHIN an ecosystem, wheres as _____ flows THROUGH an ecosystem,entering as light and exiting as heat

organ

Which of the following levels of biological organization includes all others in the list: cell, molecule, organ, tissue?

cell

the lowest level of structure that can perform all activities required for life.

the correlation of structure and function

Cells illustrate a certain theme of biology : " _______"

systems biology

The goal of ___________ is to construct models for the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems, ranging from the functioning of the biosphere to the complex molecular machinery of a cell

prokaryotic, eukaryotic

There are two basic kinds of cells _______ and _______.

prokaryotic cell

A __________ is much simpler and usually much smaller
-ex. Bacteria

eukaryotic

Forms of life such as plants , animals , and fungi are composed of _______ cells

eukaryotic cell

________is subdivided by internal membranes into many different functional compartments , or organelles,including the nucleus that houses the cell's DNA

constantly

An ecosystem gains and loses energy _______

DNA

All cells have _____, and the continuity of life is based on this genetic material

genes

DNA is the substance of ______

genes

units of inheritance that transmit information from parents to offspring

double helix

Each DNA molecule is made up of two long chains coiled together into why is called a ______________

order,regulation,growth and development, energy processing,response to the environment,reproduction,evolutionary adaption

Name seven things all organisms have in common

DNA as the genetic material

What is the chemical basis for all of life's kinship

species

Biologists have so far identified and named about 1.8 million _______, the term used for a particular type of organisms

taxonomy

The branch of biology that names and classifies species, arranges them into a hierarchy of broader and broader groups, from genus, family , order, class and phylum , to kingdom.

domains

Most biologists now agree that kingdoms of life can be organized into three branch drops called ____

bacteria, archaea

Domain _____ and domain _____ both consist of prokaryotes.

bacteria

_______ are the most diverse and widespread prokaryotes and are now divided among several kingdoms.

archaea

Many of the prokaryotes known as ____ live in earth's extreme environments such as salty lakes and boiling hot springs.

eukaryotic

______ cells have a nucleus and other internal structures called organelles

prokaryotic

-lacks nucleus(DNA has no nucleus)
-considered much simpler and usually much smaller than a eukaryotic cell
-Ex. bacteria

eukaryotic

-has a nucleus,which contains its DNA
-organelles
-Ex. plant, animals and fungi

matter,energy

living organisms interact with their environment,exchanging ________ and _____

producers

_______ produce their own food(autotroph)
Ex. plants, mosses and other photosynthetic organisms

consumers

______ get food by eating plants and other animals(heterotroph)
ex. herbivores, carnivores, omnivores

herbivores

only eat plants

carnivores

only eat meat

omnivores

eat both meat and plants

decomposers

______ act as recyclers,decompose waste and the remains of dead organisms
Ex. bacteria, fungi and small animals living in the soil

bacteria

-prokaryotes, unicellular, microscopic
-most diverse and widespread prokaryotes

archaea

-prokaryotes, unicellular, microscopic
-live in Earth's extreme environments
ex. Halophiles, thermophiles, methanogens

halophiles

salt loving

thermophiles

heat loving

kingdom protists,kingdom fungi,kingdom planate,kingdom animalia

Name the 4 kingdoms of Eukarya

kingdom protists

_______ is a kingdom of the domain Eukarya that are diverse collection of mostly unicellular organisms

kingdom fungi

-mostly decomposers
-Break down the remains
-Ex. molds, yeasts and mushrooms

charles darwin

_________ wrote " On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection"

science

The word ____ is derived from a latin verb meaning "to know"

natural phenomena

Science seeks natural causes for_____ ______

discovery science

one of the main scientific approaches of Biology which is mostly about describing nature

hypothesis-based science

one of the main scientific approaches which is mostly about explaining nature

discovery science, hypothesis based science

Science uses two main approaches to learn about nature ___________ and ___________

inductive reasoning

Discovery science can lead to important conclusions based on a type of logic called ________.This kind of reasoning derives general principles from a large number of specific observations.

evolution, descent with modification

Darwin presented evidence to support the idea of ________- that species living today are descendants of ancestral species. Darwin called his evolutionary theory, "________"

natural selection

Darwin second point was to propose a mechanism for evolution, a mechanism he called ________-

inductive

"all organisms are made of cells" is an _____ conclusion based on the discovery of cells in every microscopic biological specimens observed by biologists over two centuries of time.

hypothesis

A _____ is a proposed explanation for a set of observations.

deductive reasoning

________ is the logic used in hypothesis based science to come up with ways to test hypotheses.
the reasoning flows from the general to the specific

general, specific

In deductive reasoning, the reasoning flows from _______ to the ______

theory

A ____ in science is broader in scope. It explains a great diversity of observations and is supported by a large and usually growing body of evidence.
-generate new hypotheses, which can be tested.

deductions

In the process of science, ____ usually takes the form of predictions of experimental results or observations we should expect IF a particular hypothesis is correct.
-uses "if..then" logic

testifiable, falsifiable

A hypothesis must be _______-there must be some way to check its validity and it must be _______- there must be some observation or experiment that could show that it is not true

true

true or false
No amount of experimental testing can prove a hypothesis beyond a shadow of a doubt, because it is impossible to exhaust all alternative hypotheses.

controlled experiment

________one that is designed to compare an experimental group with a control group.

natural phenomena

The goal of science is to understand ______ ______

technology

The goal of ______ is to apply scientific knowledge for some specific purpose

evolution

_____ core theme of biology

evolution

_____tells us that all living species are descendants of ancestral species that have become modified as natural selection adapts populations to their environments.

taxonomy

_____names species and classifies them into a system of broader groups

Evolution

____explains the unity and diversity of life..

natural selection

______ is an editing mechanism that occurs when populations of organism , having inherited variations, are exposed to environmental factors that favor reproductive success of some individuals over others.

adaptations

All organisms have ____ that have evolved by means of natural selection

discovery science

In ______, scientists carefully observe and describe some aspect of the world and use inductive reasoning to draw general conclusions.

hypothesis-based science

In ____________, scientists attempt to explain observations by testing hypotheses.

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