a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses
the theory that the universe revolves around the Earth
the idea that the planets revolve around the Sun
a period of time during the mid-1700s when many scientific discoveries were made
Created political science during the 1600s
Believed people could govern themselves (1632-1704)
belief that people should create the government
rights one is born with--life, liberty and property
social critics who tried to apply reason to all aspects of life--they felt if accepted ways of doing things did not make sense, those ways should change
do not believe in religion--deny the existence of God
believed in God as the creator, but rejected the church's rituals and authority of the clergy
a lawyer and aristocrat, he outline practices he thought would protect people's rights and lead to good government. He wrote "The Spirit of the Laws" and urged the separation of the powers of the government to keep any one individual or group from gaining total control of the government.
separation of the powers of the government
the division of authority among different branches of government. One branch would make laws, a second branch would see that the laws were carried out, a third branch would interpret the laws.
He believed people should not follow science and fact--people would be better off if they lived outdoors, in harmony with nature; according to his social contract, each member of the community would vote on issues and the will of the majority would become law
monarchs who embraced the enlightenment
published by the philosophes; a 28 volume work to understand the enlightenment, especially science and technology
social gatherings where writers, artists and philosophers met regularly--played music, read poetry and discussed ideas
a grand, ornate style--art, architecture, music (1500s and 1600s)
a simple and elegant style--art, architecture, music (late 1700s)
checks and balances
one government branch can cancel out another to prevent any one branch from gaining too much power.
French political and social system before 1789
One of three classes of French society in the Old Regime: the clergy--owned much of the land, but paid no taxes
One of three classes of French society in the Old Regime: the nobility--owned about a quarter of the land
One of three classes of French society in the Old Regime: peasants, city workers, middle class (everyone except the clergy and nobility) (together-owned about half the land, but were often too poor to support their families
clergy of noble descent--usually lived in luxury
parish priests who came from the middle and lower classes--usually lived in poverty
middle class--merchants, bankers, lawyers, doctors, intellectuals and government bureaucrats (part of the third estate--had money but no political influence)
Louis the XVI
Took the throne in 1774--he asked the First and Second Estates to accept a tax on their lands, as France was deeply in debt. When the First and Second Estates refused to be tasks, chaos led to the French Revolution
Assembly of Delegates from the Three Estates.
1789 Meeting of the Estates General
King called a meeting, hoping to approval of a plan to tax the first and second estates. Action stalled, because they could not decide how to vote. The third estate wanted each delegate to have one vote, which would give them a better chance of reform.
Famine in France
A shortage of food in the 1780s; crop failures caused a shortage of grain, which caused bread prices to rise, which caused peasants to starve to death.
Tennis Court Oath
An oath by the Third Estate that they would remain assembled until a constitution was written--that the power resided with the people and not the monarchy---after having been locked out of their meeting place, they had moved to the Palace's indoor tennis court
The National Assembly
The first victory for the bourgeoisie: The Third Estate came together to force all the Estates to meet as one body. They declared themselves the National Assembly and invited the other Estates to join them. At first they and Louis the VXI refused. After a week, Louis the XVI gave in.
a government without a king or queen
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Set forth the ideals of the French Revolution. List of 17 rights.
a prison and armory--a hated symbol of oppression
The Women's March on Versailles
On October 5, 1789, Parisian women rallied to protest the shortage of bread and the soaring food prices and lack of work, since nobility were fleeing Paris. Thousands of women marched 12 miles in the rain, armed with sticks and farm tools. They stormed the palace and forced the royal family to return to Paris and knifepoint.
The Palace of Versailles was the official residence of the Kings of France from 1682 until 1790
a Vindication of the Rights of Women
a document written in 1792, which stated that it was natural for the "rights of man" to be extended to women., Mary Wollstonecraft
An English writer who supported the French Revolution; wrote the "Vindication of the Rights of Women." Urged better education for women
people who wanted drastic change and whom wanted France to become a republic--they did not even want a monarch with limited power
the right to vote--in 1792, all adult males were granted the right to vote
A group of radicals during the French revolution--took advantage of France's crisis--got rid of Girondists and set up the Committee of Public Safety
Reign of Terror
a brutal program during the French Revolution to silence critics of the government. Between 1793 and 1794, 20,000 - 40,000 people were executed
an execution device thought to be a more humane way of killing people by beheading them--when a famous person was to be guillotined, men and women left their jobs to watch the spectacle
Leading member of the Committee of Public Safety--Began the Reign of Terror--was eventually arrested and executed when the Reign of Terror spiraled out of control
Committee of Public Safety
A 12 member committee which sought to promote the revolution, destroy enemies within France, and support the War Effort. This Body was the main proponent of the Reign of Terror.
A French General who was made emperor--one of the greatest military geniuses of all time
Reflected ideas of the revolution and enlightenment--all men were treated as equals, no matter what their birth or wealth; Feudalism and class privileges were abolished; allowed people to practice the religion of their choice; protected property rights
Napoleonic Wars / Tactical Errors
Napolean tried to take over Europe--people began to hate him when conquered peoples were forced to provide soldiers, pay taxes to support the war and and provide raw materials-people who had hailed Napoleon as a liberator began to hate him
Guerilla warfare (Napoleon vs. Spain)
surprise attacks by small bands of soldiers--first used by Spain again Napoleon's army
An island off the coast of Italy, to which Napoleon was exiled.
A period, after Napoleon's escape from Elba, during which he reclaimed his title of emperor after telling the army which came to arrest him "If there is one soldier among you who wishes to kill his emperor, here I am"
Battle of Waterloo
The spot where the Allied forces defeated Napoleon a second time. His army crumbled under the attack led by the British Duke of Wellington.
Prussia, Austria, Russia and Sweden--allied themselves again Napoleon
The Latin American George Washington, the greatest of the South American revolutionary leaders; defeated the Spanish army and became president of Great Columbia
Guerilla Warfare (Latin America)
A Creole priest in a Mexican town named Delores organized a revolt against Spanish rule. He is remembered as "The Father of Mexican Independence"
Cry of Delores
speech by Father Hildago, in which he rang the bell in Delores and spoke to the townspeople, calling for independence, the return of lands that had been taken from Indians and an end to slavery
Won independence from Spain in 1821
Won independence from Spain in 1804
rebellion of slaves begun in Haiti, which led to the abolishment of slavery
Congress of Vienna
A peace settlement, in which it was hoped rulers would return to their former positions from before the French Revolution--essentially a way to clean up Napoleon's mess
a philosophy based on the desire to preserve traditional ways of doing things
a philosophy that grew out of the enlightenment and the French Revolution--stressed indiviudal freedoms and equality under law and freedom of thought and religion.
extreme pride in one's country
A delegate to the congress of Vienna. He opposed liberalism and nationalism--wanted to protect the old order that Napoleon had messed up
the idea that the monarchs who had been forced out of power during the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars were their nation's rightful rulers
Restoration of Monarchs
Monarchy returned to Spain, Portugal and Sardinia. The Pope regained the Papal states
A system devised by Metternich, which encouraged the rulers of Europe to resist any threats to the established order--encouraged censorship of books and newspapers and put many liberals in prison
Carlsbad Decrees/Blocking of Liberal ideas
Metternich encouraged the German confederation to pass these decrees, which set up a spy system to report on liberal groups
An artistic and intellectual movement, which helped to inspire Nationalist uprisings
The writers of the Romantic period saw this as beautiful and mysterious; a source of inspiration and emotion
Sturm and Drang
"Storm and Stress" written works described people struggling against society and trying to deal with their own powerful emotions
Mary Shelley wrote one of the best known romantic-era gothic novels in 1818
the belief that the greatest art came from unleashing the human imagination, rather than following strict formulas. Reacted against the balanced and ordered style of the enlightenment; they used bold and dramatic colors to show their feelings
music drew upon nationalistic themes--the 1812 Overture celebrated Russia's victory over Napoleon
a philosophy that called for public ownership of factories, banks and other businesses