writing about earth (geo+graphy)
study of where and why human activities are located where they are.
study of where and why natural forces occur as they do.
relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and earth as a whole
physical gap between two objects
relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space
scale model of the real world, made as a reference tool or a communication tool
first to discover Earth's spherical shape
first to use the word "geography"
Age of Exploration and Discovery
revival of geography and mapmaking when Ptolemy's maps were rediscovered and writings were translated into European languages
shows the numerical ratio between distances on the map and Earth's surface. eg: 1:24,000- shows 1 unit on map actually represents 24,000 units
describes the relationship between map and Earth distances in words. eg: 1 inch equals 1 mile
consists of a bar line marked to show distance on Earth's surface
the only way a map can be accurately projected without distortion
scientific method of transferring locations on Earth's surface to a flat map
ways of distortion
shape, distance, relative size, and direction on a map
The Robinson projection
useful for displaying information across oceans, but the landforms are much smaller
the Mercator projection
shape is distorted very little, direction is consistant, and the map is rectangular. however, the poles are much larger than they actually are
Land Ordinance of 1785
divided most of the country into a system of townships and ranches to sell land to settlers in the west
a square of 6 miles on each side that has a number corresponding to its distance north or south of a particular base line
the number of sections in a township
helps geographers create more accurate and complex maps and measure changes of places over time
GPS (global positioning system)
determines the precise position of something using satellites, tracking stations, and a receiver. commonly used for navigation
acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting Earth
GIS (geographic information system)
computer system that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic data used to produce maps
name given to a place on Earth eg: famous person, founder's name, religion, features of the environment
the physical characteristic of a place. eg: climate, water sources, soil.
the location of a place relative to other places. eg: close to the pond
arc drawn between the north and south poles identified using longitude
0 degrees longitude
circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians. identified using latitude
0 degrees latitude
invented the first portable clock that could keep accurate time on a ship
combination of cultural features such as language and religion, economic features such as agriculture and industry, and physical features which a region derives its unified character from.
regional studies approach
the idea that each region has its own distinctive landscape that results from a unique combination of social relationships and physical processes.
area which everyone shares one or more distinctive characteristics in common. can be a cultural value, an economic activity, or an environmental property
area organized around a node or focal point. eg: a television's signal area
place people believe exists as a part of their cultural identity
body of customary beliefs (what people care about and what people care for)
the study of human-environment relationships and how different cultural groups modify the environment. explains many global issues, such as the population's need to produce food.
Alexander von Humboldt and Carl Ritter's theory that the view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life including cultural development
The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.
substances that are useful to people
the Koppen system
divides the world into 5 major climate regions identified by the letters A through E
dry and polar climates
two most unpopular climate regions in the Koppen system
trees form a continuous canopy that covers the ground. covers most of north america, europe, asia, south america, africa, and southeast asia.
biome with a lack of shade which results in a lack of grass. covers large areas of africa, south asia, south america, and australia.
land is covered in grass rather than trees, few trees because of lack of precipitation.
dispersed patches of plants adapted to dry conditions. few animals due to lack of vegetation.
U.S. comprehensive soil classification system
divides global soil types into 12 orders according to surface and subsoil.
soil washes away/blows away in the wind. one of the contributing factors to the destruction of soil.
plants withdraw more nutrients than natural resources can replace
a map that shows the surface features of an area. used to study the relief and slope of localities.
the study of landforms that helps explain the distribution of people and the choice of economic activities at different locations. eg: people prefer flatter land because it is better for farming
piece of land created by draining water from an area
force or process that involves the entire world and results in making something worldwide in scope. eg: the globalization of mcdonalds.
conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters are located.
total number of objects in a given area
the number of persons per unit of area suitable for agriculture. if it is high, the country would have a harder time growing enough food to sustain its population.
number of farmers per unit area of farmland. if high, it may mean agriculture in that country is insufficient.
distant places seem more accessible and less remote. we know about what is happening in a different part of the world sooner.
the effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less interaction