Psychology CH1

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What is the most complete definition of psychology?

Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes

What makes psychology a scientific discipline?

Its focus on testing theories

Which Greek philosopher first espoused the idea that people are motivated by a pleasure principle?

Aristotle

Psychology made the transition from philosophy to science with which event?

Wundt founded the first psychological laboratory

For her first psychology paper in grad school, Tina decided to write about the subject of psychophysicas. Which of the following is most likely to be the name of her paper?

Men's physical reactions to different concentrations of perfume

G. Stanley Hall is known for all of the following except:

He is considered the founder of American Psychology

Which of the following early pioneers of psychology became the first scientist of the mind?

Wundt

You have been assigned to write a report on Wundts contributions to psychology. Which would be the most useful term for an Internet search?

Introspection

A functionalist is most likely to ask which of the following questions?

What is the purpose of superstitions?

Your psychology professor asks a student volunteer to concentrate on an apple and describe the individual elements of that experience. Your professor is demonstration the technique of

introspection

Psychological researcher Dr. Tatrino relies chiefly on introspection. Tatrino probably belongs to which school of psychology?

Structuralism

Which of the following schools of thought focused on breaking conscious experience into its component parts?

Structuralism

Which early school of psychology is associated with the method of introspection?

Structuralism

Who is generally recognized as the founder of American psychology?

James

Wundt is to _____ as James is to _____

Structuralism: Functionalism

Your notes about William James would most likely include which term?

Functionalism

Functionalism focused on

How individuals adapt to their environment

Structuralist are to elements of ____ as chemists are to the elements listed in the periodic table

consciousness

The founder of behaviorism was

Watson

In preparing a report on John Watson, you would want to do a literature search using what term?

behaviorism

The behaviorist emphasis on observable events as the focus of inquiry can be traced to which philosopher?

Aristotle

A strong belief that the environment molds the behavior of humans and other animals is characteristic of which school of psychology?

behaviorist

The major proponent of behaviorism for much of the twentieth century was

Skinner

Animal train Bob Jeffers uses rewards to teach his animals to perform silly tricks in the circus. Jeffer's techniques are based on principles from which school of psychology?

Behaviorism

Regarding behaviorism, which of the following statements is true?

B. F. Skinner presented ideas and techniques for rewarding and punishing behavior

Your dog is demonstrating some unacceptable behavior. You are able to go back in time to talk to one of the pioneers of psychology. Who would be the best choice to help with your problem?

B.F. Skinner

The Gesalt school of psychology was founded by

Wertheimer

Dr. Spires talks with some students before psychology class begins. Spires says, "I believe that mental experience is best understood as a whole, rather than in terms of its parts" Her students recognize that Spires follows which school of thought?

Gestalt

An emphasis on the unconscious and early childhood experience is characteristic of which school of psychology?

Psychodynamic

The definition of the German word "Gesatalt" is closest to that of the English word

pattern

According to Freud, abnormal behaviors, like phobias, are

shaped by early experiences

"Talk Therapy" is associated with which of the following?

Sigmund Freud

Which of the following reflects and influence of psychodynamic theory in todays's culture?

The belieft that psychological problems are rooted in childhood

An extension of the behavioral perspective that incorporates the study of mental processes is termed

social-cognitive theory

Which of the following mental health professionals is most likely a behavior therapist?

Dr. Barney, who uses techniques based on learning principles to help clients alter maladaptive behaviors

Compared to Freud, neo-Freudians place less emphasis on

Sexual and aggressive motives

The "third force" in psychology is more formally known as

humanistic psychology

Which theorists are associated with humanistic psychology?

Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers

A humanistic psychologist is most likely to agree with which of the following statements?

Each individual is unique

Your friend asks whether there is any evidence that ADHD might be due to abnormal brain structures. You might suggest that she take a course in

physiological psychology

The approach that studies the relationships between biological processes and behavior is termed

physiological psychology

A movements within modern psychology that applies principles from Darwins theories is called

evolutionary psychology

Which of the following psychologists is most likely to study how humans process information?

A cognitive psychologist

The research study of a cognitive psychologist is most likely to involve which of the following topics?

Problem solving

Which perspective is most responsible for bringing issues related to diversity to the forefront of psychological research?

sociocultural

Ethnic minorities make up approximately what portion of the population in the US?

1/3

How many people in the US describe themselves as multiracial?

7 million

Moreno, trigueno, and indio are terms used by which Americans to indicate ancestry and variations in skin tones?

Hispanic

Traditional "racial" distinctions between people

do not stand up to genetic tests

An eclectic psychologist is one who

employs the theories and principles of different psychological perspectives

Positive psychology is distinctively different from much of the rest of psychology because of its emphasis on

understanding human strengths and assets

Who is most closely assoiated with the positive psychology movement?

Martin Seligman

Which perspective in psychology would suggest that depression is related to changes in brain chemistry?

physiological

A humanist would give which explanation for aggression?

Aggression increases when people become frustrated by not being able to meet their goals

Which perspective hypothesizes that depression results from maladaptive thought patterns?

cognitive

Which perspective in psychology would suggest that obesity is related to unresolved childhood needs for love and support?

psychodynamic

A researcher adhering to the behavioral perspective would likely believe that aggression

is learned when it is rewarded by the environment

"You alone know what is good for you. You need to make a conscious choice to change your behavior and start being true to yourself" Which perspective is this?

Humanist

You eavesdrop as several psychologists eat lunch together. Which statement is from a behaviorist?

"I believe that early learning experiences have shaped my actions as an adult"

A researcher adhering to the psychodynamic perspective would likely believe that depression

represents anger turned inward

As a humanist, Dr. Randall is most likely interested in

Can a lack of purpose influence a person's depression

The difference between basic and applied research is that only basic research

is almost always associated with universities or government agencies

Most psychologists

provide psychological services

What is the graduate degree most commonly earned by psychologists?

Ph.D

Which subspecialty represents the largest group of psychologists?

clinical

Of the following subspecialties in psychology, which is LEAST likely to focus on applied research?

Experimental

The Psy.D degree is appropriate for those who wish to focus more on _____ skills than on ___ skills.

Practitioner: research

Which of the following play a professional role that most closely approximates that of psychiatrists?

Clinical psychologists

A school psychologist would be most likely to

administer an intelligence test to a twelve year old child

What type of psychologist studies the bases of memory problems in the elderly using animal research subjects?

comparative

The executives of an aircraft company want to redesign the interior of their jet planes to offer passengers the most comfort within the confined space. what type of psychologist would they need to consult?

environmental

An industrial/organizational psychologist would typically

make suggestions to a manager regarding employee morale

A developmental psychologist is most likely to study which of the following research questions?

How do children's eating habits change as they progress form childhood through adolescence?

Dana is studying the variables that influence initial attraction, while Leonard is studying the traits that are typical of couples in long-term relationships. Dana is most likely taking a class in _____ psychology whereas Leonard is most likely taking a class in _______ psychology.

Social/ personality

What major would a student writing a paper entitled "The Role of Observational learning in the development of prejudice" be working towards?

social psychology

A health psychologist might study the

effectiveness of ads that use fear to get adolescents to stop smoking

A counseling psychologist is most likely to see

a college student who is confused about choosing a college major

Which type of psychologist is most likely to administer an intelligence test to a seven year old child who is being evaluated for placement in a special ed program?

school

Which task is an educational psychologist least likely to perform?

administer intelligence tests to students

Which type of psychologist would most likely study such phenomena as the effects of parenting style on a child's emotional growth?

developmental

Which psychologist would be most likely to be involved in a study that seeks to identify the common traits of people who develop a stress-related disorder?

personality psychologist

Which type of psychologist would evaluate whether overcrowding in urban areas is associated with increased violent crimes?

environmental

On Jeans first day as an industrial/organizational psychologist Jean was least surprised when management asked her to

recommend ways to improve employees' job satisfaction

The APA was founded in

1892

Dr. Samuelson conducts research on the relationship between stroke and speech problems. He is probably a

neuropsychologist

Dr. Starling works with the FBI to develop personality profiles of rapists. Dr. Starling is probably what type of psychologist?

Forensic

A consultant who advises defense attorneys regarding what their accused client should wear in court is likely to be what type of psychologist?

forensic

Which of the following statements is true of Mary Whiton Calkins?

She was the first female president of the APA

Who is the only african american to have served as president of the APA?

Kenneth Clark

Who was the first woman to earn a Ph.D in psychology in the US?

Margaret Floy Washburn

Which psychology pioneer conducted the study that showed that African American preschoolers preferred plaing with a white doll to playing with a black doll?

Kenneth Clark and Mamie Phipps-Clark

The first AA to receive a doctorate in psychology in the US was ______ and the first AA to publish research findings in a major US journal was _____

Francis Sumner and J. Henry Alston

Whose work played an important role in the US Supreme court case Brown v Board

Kenneth and Mamie Clark

Women account for apprx what % of Ph.D recipients in psychology?

70%

A method of developing knowledge based on the evaluation of evidence from experiemtns and careful observation is called the

empirical approach

The goals of psychology are to describe, predict, explain, and....

control events

A conclusion drawn from an observation is referred to as a

inference

Theories are

explanations that organize observations and account for the relationships among them

The use of psychotherapy to help people deal with depression is an example of which goal of psychology?

control

Which of the following statements about psychology is true?

Psychologists are trained to be skeptics

Psychologists frame their research questions in the form of

hypotheses

After reading about a study that concluded that having a dog is beneficial for an elderly person's health, Dr. Wolpe was skeptical. Therefore, he decided to do a similar study to see whether he would achieve the same results. Dr. Wolpe's study would be termed a

replication

Dr. Mingus keeps a very detailed record of a series of interviews with an individual who is suffering from a rare brain disorder. This is an example of which research method?

case study

Your psychology professor refers to a research study and says the results were"statistically significant." What does this mean?

The results are unlikely to have been due to chance or other random factors

Social desirability bias and volunteer bias are problems typically associated with which research method?

surveys

In order to make sure that a sample drawn from a population is truly representative, it is necessary to use

random sampling

If people overestimate the amount of money they give to charity, the exaggeration probably represents

social desirability bias

Developmental psychologist Arthur Chang observes children in a day care center through a one-way mirror. This is which form of research?

Naturalistic observation

A statistical measure of the association between two variables is called a

correlation coefficient

A correlation coefficient of 0.00 means that

there is no relationship between the variables

What does a correlation of +1.00 mean?

That knowing the value of one variable allows perfect prediction of the value of another

In a study of the effects of sleep deprivation on aggressiveness, the number of hours that a participant stays awake represents the

independent variable

An experiment investigates whether watching television while eating causes a person to eat more potato chips than one eats when not watching television. In this case, the number of potato chips eaten represents the

dependent variable

Which of the following definitions best describes "independent variable"

A factor manipulated in an experiment

In an experiment, the factor that is expected to change is referred to as the

dependent variable

An experimental group receives treatment and is then measured for the effect. What happens to the control group in the experiment?

It receives no treatment at all but is measured

In a drug study, Group One receives an inactive pill, and Group Two receives a pill that is believed to be effective in treating depression. Group Two is the

experimental group

Every participant in an experiment has an equal chance of receiving one of the treatments. This is called

random assignment

Dr.Schultze conducts research on the effects of a new drug on obsessive-compulsive disorder. In his study, neither Schultze nor the participants knows who is receiving the active drug and who is receiving the placebo. This is an example of

double-blind study

A placebo effect would be most likely to account for changes in

pain intensity

In the case "Anatomy of a Research Study: Clocking First Impressions," presented in your text, what was the finding?

That people can form meaningful impressions from a mere glimpse of a person's face

In the case "Anatomy of a Research Study: Clocking First Impressions," presented in your text, trait ratings and confidence ratings were the

dependent variables

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