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Peace of Westphalia

The name of a series of treaties that concluded the Thirty Years' War in 1648 and marked the end of large-scale religious violence in Europe. ended 30 years war

Fronde

A series of violent uprisings during the early reign of Louis XIV triggered by growing royal control and oppressive taxation.

Peace of Utrecht

A series of treaties, from 1713 to 1715, that ended the War of the Spanish Succession, ended French expansion in Europe, and marked the rise of the British Empire

mercantilism

A system of economic regulations aimed at increasing the power of the state based on the belief that a nation's international power was based on its wealth, specifically its supply of gold and silver

Junkers

The nobility of Brandenburg and Prussia, they were reluctant allies of Frederick William in his consolidation of the Prussian state.

boyars

The highest-ranking members of the Russian nobility

Cossacks

Free groups and outlaw armies originally comprising runaway peasants living on the borders of Russian territory from the fourteenth century onward. By the end of the sixteenth century they had formed an alliance with the Russian state

sultan

The ruler of the Ottoman Empire; he owned all the agricultural land of the empire and was served by an army and bureaucracy composed of highly trained slaves.

janissary corps

The core of the sultan's army, composed of slave conscripts from non-Muslim parts of the empire; after 1683 it became a volunteer force.

millet system

A system used by the Ottomans whereby subjects were divided into religious communities with each millet (nation) enjoying autonomous self-government under its religious leaders

constitutionalism

A form of government in which power is limited by law and balanced between the authority and power of the government on the one hand and the rights and liberties of the subject or citizen on the other hand; could include constitutional monarchies or republics.

republicanism

A form of government in which there is no monarch and power rests in the hands of the people as exercised through elected representatives.

Puritans

Members of a sixteenth-and seventeenth-century reform movement within the Church of England that advocated purifying it of Roman Catholic elements, such as bishops, elaborate ceremonials, and wedding rings.

Protectorate

The English military dictatorship (1653-1658) established by Oliver Cromwell following the execution of Charles I.

Test Act

Legislation passed by the English parliament in 1673 to secure the position of the Anglican Church by stripping Puritans, Catholics, and other dissenters of the right to vote, preach, assemble, hold public office, and attend or teach at the universities.

stadholder

The executive officer in each of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, a position often held by the princes of Orange.

paulette

annual tax

peasants in Eastern Europe

worked for nobility who owned land because they did not have their own. could not own land nor move,went many days without being paid,lords had total power over their serfs

peasants in Western Europe

worked for farmers, sold produce to make a living, lowest class=rural workers (servants) able to escape serfdom and own land,

What did ALL peasants eat?

mostly bread accompanied by soup and occasionally pork

causes of reemergence of serfdom in eastern Europe

serfs needed to maintain lord's harvest, so that they could maintain a surplus to be sold

causes of 30 Years' War

-feuding between Catholics and Protestants
-Austrians and Spanish wanted to preserve Catholicism and were willing to keep the Protestants from making any religious or territorial advances

Ferdinand II

elector of Bohemia who would allow people to practice whatever religion. however once elected he closed all Protestant churches

peace of augsburg

The uneasy truce between Catholics and Protestants created by the Peace of Augsburg in 1555 deteriorated as the faiths of various areas shifted. Lutheran princes felt compelled to form the Protestant Union (1608), and Catholics retaliated with the Catholic League (1609).

Bohemian phase (1618-1625)

first phase of 30 Years War characterized by civil war in Bohemia between the Catholic League and the Protestant Union. In 1620 Catholic forces defeated Protestants at the Battle of the White Mountain.

Danish Phase (1625-1629)

witnessed additional Catholic victories. The Catholic imperial army led by Albert of Wallenstein swept through Silesia, north to the Baltic, and east into Pomerania, scoring smashing victories. Habsburg power peaked in 1629. The emperor issued the Edict of Restitution,

Edict of Restitution

whereby all Catholic properties lost to Protestantism since 1552 were restored, and only Catholics and Lutherans were allowed to practice their faiths.

Swedish Phase (1630-1635)

began with the arrival in Germany of the Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus (r. 1594-1632) and his army. he intervened to support the empire's Protestants. The French chief minister, Cardinal Richelieu, subsidized the Swedes, hoping to weaken Habsburg power in Europe. Gustavus Adolphus won two important battles but was fatally wounded in combat.

French Phase (1635-1648)

prompted by Richelieu's concern that the Habsburgs would rebound after the death of Gustavus Adolphus. Richelieu declared war on Spain and sent military as well as financial assistance. Finally, in October 1648 peace was achieved.

Effects of 30 years war

entire areas depopulated. Trade in southern German cities, such as Augsburg, was virtually destroyed. Agricultural areas suffered catastrophically. Many small farmers lost their land, allowing nobles to enlarge their estates and consolidate their control

Henry IV

founder of the Bourbon dynasty, acquired a devastated country. Civil wars between Protestants and Catholics had wracked France since 1561. Poor harvests had reduced peasants to starvation, and commercial activity had declined drastically. Henry the Great promised "a chicken in every pot"

Cardinal Jules Mazarin (1602-1661)

Along with the regent, Queen Mother Anne of Austria, Mazarin continued Richelieu's centralizing policies. His struggle to increase royal revenues to meet the costs of war led to the uprisings of 1648-1653 known as the Fronde

Edict of Nantes

issued by Henry IV allowing Protestants the right to worship in 150 traditionally Protestant towns throughout France.

Henry IV's reforms

-Edict of Nantes
-sharply lowered taxes and instead charged royal officials an annual fee to guarantee the right to pass their positions down to their heirs
-improved the infrastructure of the country, building new roads and canals and repairing the ravages of years of civil war

Parlement of Paris

the nation's most important court, was outraged by the Crown's autocratic measures (Fronde)

Jean-Baptiste Colbert

central principle was that the wealth and the economy of France should serve the state. applied mercantilism to France, wanted to make Canada part of FRench empire

Louis XIV's Wars

-soldiers employed by state not nobles (organized army)
-wanted to expand France
-raised money by devaluating currency

War of Spanish Succession

caused when King Charles II died and his will violated a previous treaty where Spanish possessions would be divided between the HREmperor and King of France. Louis accepted the will which therefore broke the treaty and ignited the war

revolt under Prince Francis Radoczy

Hungarians did not want to be under him because they did not want absolutist rule.

Great Elector

Fredrick William I came to power in 1640 wanted to enlarge provinces by diplomacy and war. persuaded Junkers to accept taxation to improve army

Fredrick I

King of Prussia, determined to make Prussia an impressive militaristic state.

Ivan III

did not acknownledge Mongols. used khans who had total power instead paying taxes to Mongols which enables Ivan the Great to expand to the Baltic Sea, began rise of autocracy ended practice of governing princes

Ivan the Terrible (V)

crowned himself tsar and crushed those who opposed him , killed leading boyar families and created new service nobility, bound merchant and traders to land to be taxed

Times of Trouble

-crop failure
-plague
-death
-Cossacks rebelled

Michael Romanov

grandnephew of Ivan IV
-extended serfdom to all peasants
-Russia gained Ukranian land
-foreign experts employed to help build Russian army

Ivan I

loaned money and charged interest

Peter the Great

-built strong army
-used foreign technology
-waged war with Sweden trying to expand
-westernization
-no beards/western clothing
-serfdom
-potatoes/vodka
-St. Petersburg
-"Great Embassy" visited Places to learn with others

James I

did not want to consult Parliament, wanted son to marry a Catholic Princess (Great Protestation) House of Commons wants a greater say, had bible translated

Charles I

imposed ship tax to finance army, dismissed Parliament twice, forced to sign Petition of Right (can't tax without consent of Parliament)

Triennial Act

Parliament would meet every three Years

Habeas Corpus Act

if someone is arrested, must be told what they are being charged and be tried in a timely manner

Treaty of Dover

deal with Louis XIV that he would pay Charles if he was kinder to Catholics

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