Graphic Design A New History - glossary chapters one and two

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Rubrication

The process of highlighting words through the utilization of colored inks.

Italics

Type that slants elegantly upward and to the right.

Small Capitals

Uppercase letters that are sized equal to the "x height" of a given typeface and therefore smaller than the standard uppercase letters.

Gothic

An alternative name for blackletter type that imitates medievil script; alternatively in the United States it can refer to sans serif type.

Textura

A kind of early blackletter type that was utilized in the Gutenberg Bible.

Blackletter

The general term for typefaces that resemble the forms of medievil script; the positive space formed by black ink overwhelms the negative white space of the paper.

Justified

The spacing of text so that the ends of lines are even.

Woodcut

Relief printing in which the image is carved into a block of wood to facilitate reproduction.

Letterpress

Printing technique whereby the ink is supported on a raised surface, such as the letters of metal type.

Incunabula

A book printed before 1501

Roman

A typeface style dating from the renaissance, originally derived from Carolingian Minuscule; roman letters feature serifs.

Jenson-Eusebius

A fifteenth-century Old Style type designed in Venice by the typographer .

Stress

In a typeface, this denotes the angle of the major axis around which the strokes of a letter are structured (not the angle of the strokes themselves).

Bembo

A fifteenth-century Old Style type designed in Venice by Aldus Manutius. Bembo is the basis for the group of roman types called "old style"

Old Style

Roman type of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries that is characterized by understated contrast, bracketed serifs, and oblique stress.

Garamond

A fifteenth-century Old Style type designed in France .

Schwabacher

Blackletter type that originated in Germany in about the fifteenth century.

Fraktur

Blackletter type characterized by "fractured"forms that originated in Germany in the early sixtennth century; also used as a general synonym for blackletter type.

Transitional

Seventeenth-century roman type that is characterized by vertical stress, significant contrast, wide proportions, and thin, elegant serifs.

caslon

Eighteenth-century Transitional type designed in England .

Baskerville

Eighteenth-century Transitional type designed in England .

Modern type

Eighteenth-century roman type that is characterized by extreme contrast in stroke thickness, staunchly vertical stress, and hairline serifs.

Didot

Eighteenth-century modern type designed in France.

Unger-Fraktur

Blackletter type introduced in 1793 by , who attempted to adopt the geometric structure of modern style roman type.

Bodoni

Eighteenth-century modern type designed in Italy.

Sans Serif

A roman letter or typeface that does not feature serifs.

Akzidenz Grotesk

One of the first high quality sans serif typefaces, it was released by the German foundry Berthold in 1896.

Slab Serif

A typeface that features heavy rectangular serifs.

Historicist

A work that references styles from the past.

Hoardings

Akin to a billboard, a hoarding is an exterior space (such as a wall) intended for the presentation of posters.

X Height

A standardized type measurement based on the size of a lowercase letter (excluding any ascenders or descenders) such as the letter x.

Foreshortened

The result of a drawing technique that allows for the accurate representation of elements perpendicular to the picture plane, such as a finger pointing at the viewer.

Job Printer

A general term for a printing house and its employees that work "job to job" without apparent specialization or design training.

Arts and Crafts

A late nineteenth-century decorative arts movement in Europe and the United States that rejected industrial production in favor of handcrafted goods with simple, often geometric, designs.

Art Nouveau

Literally "new art", a late decorative arts movement
in Europe and the United States that favored a unified design style based on organic forms, and featured a significant asian, particularly Japanese, formal influence.

Chromolithography

Color Lithography; the process whereby a color image is reproduced using flat stones that have been drawn on with greasy ink or crayons. A separate stone is used for each color. (lithography was invented by Aloys Senefelder in 1796

Rococo

An 18th century unified design style that featured exuberant color, sinuous forms, and an overall emphasis on a sensual atmosphere. risque, the rising of the sun .French 18th century style, famous as first modern design style. nude =sex in this period

Ukiyo-e

Literally "pictures of the floating world," it generally refers to japanese woodblock prints that feature images of actors, courtesans, and landscape views.relates to us - " go with the flow"

Bijin-ga

A subset of Ukiyo-e woodblock prints that showcase images of beautiful young women, mainly courtesans.

Arabesques

The term denotes the geometric patterns that were a popular part of Art Nouveau style.

Organic Form

A form in art that is derived from the natural world through its shape, which is often curving, irregular, and plant-like.

Symbolist

French symbolist movement centered on a group of poets advocated art forms that tantalized the mind and tempted the senses.

Auriol

An art Nouveau typeface designed in 1901 by that displayed an Asian influence.

Japonisme

The european, especially French, adoption of Japanese art and fashion during the late nineteenth century.

Curvilinear

A design characterized by fluid, curving lines.

Linotype

An industrial machine, developed in 1886, that facilitated mechanical typesetting by setting an entire line of type.(allowed typesetters to work with a punch keyboard that directly controlled machinery for casting hot metal type.)

Monotype

An industrial machine, developed in 1889, that facilitated mechanical typesetting by producing type character by character, thereby revolutionizing the field.(correct mistakes more easily)

Franklin Gothic

A high-quality sans serif typeface designed in 1902 by the American Morris Fuller Benton.

Grotesque

A synonym for sans serif type commonly used in Britain and Europe.

Aesthetic Movement

A British corollary to the French Symbolist movement in literature and the arts. Artists such as Oscar Wilde reveled in sensuality, mysticism, and beauty; it was sometimes disparagingly referred to as the Decadent movement.

Stylized

Designs that appear to be structured around a set style or group of compositional rules.

Rectilinear

A design characterized by straight lines.

Em Box

A unit of measurement in typography that corresponds to the size of the frame around a letter.

Architectonic

A composition structured in such a way that its forms are suggestive of the elements of architecture.

Vienna Secession

A group of young artists in late nineteenth-century Vienna who rejected the conservative artistic conventions of the era.

Secessionstil

Literally "Secession Style," a synonym for Art Nouveau as it was practiced in Vienna.

Gesamtkunstwerk

A "total work of art," meaning a piece-originating with the music dramas of Richard Wagner- that collapses every possible aesthetic experience into a unified whole.

Wiener Werkstatte

The "Viennese Workshops," a group of artists spun off from the Vienna Secession who wanted to raise the quality of Austrian decorative arts.

Kunstgewerbeschule

A viennese school dedicated to the theory and practice of the decorative arts.

Logotypes

A visual symbol that identifies a given company or institution, such as a trademark

Expressionism

Generally speaking, any artistic style that focuses more on reproducing the way the world feels, as opposed to the way the world looks.

Jugendstil

A German synonym for Art Nouveau meaning "young art," derived from the magazine Jugend.

Planar

A design dominated by flat planes.

Eckmann

A German typeface devised buy in 1900 to reconcile Art Nouveau and blackletter elements.

Bocklin

A german Art Nouveau typeface devised by Otto Wiesert in 1904.

whiplash Curve

A defining stylistic element of Art Nouveau, it is an S curve that is suggestive of the pent-up energy of a whip suspended in mid-air.

Deutscher Werkbund

A German organization founded in Munich in 1907 with the intent of raising the quality, both aesthetic and functional, of the nation's industrial production.

Behrens-Antiqua

A Roman typeface designed by Peter Behrens in 1908 for the AEG corporation.

Orthogonal

A design that is structured mostly with right angles,such as a grid.

Behrens-Fraktur

A decorative typeface designed in the early 1900s as a compromise between the blackletter and Art Nouveau styles.

Behrens-Schrift

A typeface designed by in 1901 that combined elements of blackletter script and roman structure.

Johann Gutenberg

1455 published the Gutenberg Bible. 1st person in europe to combine oil based inks,cast metal types in order to publish books. Gutenberg trained as goldsmith. borrowed money defaulted on loans and Johann Fust and Peter schuffer took over.

Romain du Roi type faces

literally "Roman of the King". created under LouisXIV This typeface was probably the first one to use a grid. the final link in the definition of typography that exists unto the present.

William Caslon VI

1780-1869. released the 1st commercial sans serif type in 1816. designed over 200 typefaces. found a home in advertising letters worked well in extreme size.

Aldus manutius

1st italic typeface. saved pages making books smaller and more affordable.

Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre

1830's frenchman discovered photography. 1837 still life in studio, 1st credited photo Le Boulevard de temple, to slow to capture the cars, one boy stopped to have his shoes shined, released to public in 1839 after securing annuity from France and giving the right to the public domain.

William Morris

design theorist and practionar (1834-1896)
recognized the flood of goods produced with lack of artistic merit due to the industrial revolution. dedicated his life to bettering the quality of British design.1861 he founded the first of a series of firms that would engage in a variety of different problems over the decades. believed that desing should be 4 everyone but almost exclusively produced things for the rich. father of arts and crafts movement.sussex chair 1865 never able to mass produce for everyone, furniture stained glass,golden typeface 1896

Jules Cheret

(1836-1933) most influential poster designer of the later nineteenth century.father of the poster, created more than 1000 designs French artist, son of a typesetter, credited with successfully promoting the art of color lithography or chromolithography- able to draw by hand, smart business man created a book with the posters

Alphonse Mucha

found himself alone when sarah bernhardt needed a rush on a poster. trademark became idealized beauty and open sexuality. long vertical, hair stylized sexuality under tones.

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec

(1864-1901)fixture at moulin Rouge, member of french aristocritsy but excluded due to stunted legs.free flowing lines. 1st time color lithograph was created using 4 colors-back, red, yellow and blue. would draw directly on stones.

William Bradley

(1868-1962) most prominent american graphic designer of the 1890's. Art nouveau and Japanese style, eclectic work, consultant to an American type founders association- to raise the standard of typography . sometimes called the american beardsley. The chap book-art poster ,self taught,

Printers Ink

1888- George Rowell founded this journal which proved to be the most influential, example of new type magazine, devoted to tracking the printing industry. Helped to price work. Also shone spotlight on good and bad advertising practices.

Arthur Mackmurdo

(1851-1942) helped found the century guild, an association dedicated to raising the status of British crafts.chair, 1883 carved & painted mahogany, leather upholstry.

Aubrey Beardsley

(1872-1898) british designer launched to success through his work for a journal called the studio. Ignited in 1893. mostly black and white because it could be reproduced w/o losing their visual impact, making him a draughtsman ,died at 25 from tuberculosis.

The Yellow Book

Beardsley and Henry Harland created this journal , decedont b/c yellow covers were used to cloak "French" novels w/ sexual themes.

The Four

Margaret Macdonald (1864-1933) and Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868-1925), Frances Macdonald (1873-1921) and Herbert MacNair (1868-1955)- formed a large part of the Art Noveau mov't. in Scotland. eventually married . Influenced by nationalism and shows it through use of color Indigo,purple,and green met at Glascow school of art. influenced by celtic work. no sexuality ,

Gustav Klimt

(1862-1918) the leader of the Vienna Secession. produced the 1st poster 4 the 1st show. Klimts' style was vertical format, asymmetrical design,empty space, much like aubrey Beardsleys. wants to collapse lines b/w fine art and graphic design. Used ancient greek mytholgy like freud. most famous painting the Kiss.

Ver Sacrum

Sacred Springs. refers to mythological story in which ancient citizens experience new found abundance after a calamity. Journal established in 1898 sought to integrate typography, ornament and image into a unified art work on the page. generally had a single theme. an austrian answer to pan and Jugend. Kolmon Moser organized the journal. even advertisement was done by succienist

Egon Schiele

(1890-1918) One of Klimts' protoge. specialized in painting but also produced a # of striking posters and other graphics. traditional art education.his father went insane a symptom of his syphillis. constant conflict w/ authority. obsessed with the depiction of sexuality and psycho sexual conflict. often mixed together with death and decay.devoted to freuds work. 1915- granted solo exhibit.1918- dead along with wife of the spanish flu.

Pan

launched in Berlin in 1895. 1st periodical to promote art Noveau in Germany.

Henry Van de Velde

1863-1957. Belgian, began as painter, winning some praises as a symbolist-inspired member of the Belgian group called LesXX(the twenty) entered Art Noveau mov't. thru Paris doing work for Bing. Only one mass produced item an advertisement for Trapan.

Peter Behrens

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