A monarchy, with three estates
Made up of the Clergy, around 130,000 people. Owned 10% of the land. Exempt from all taxes
The nobility, about 350,000 people. Owned 25-30% of the land. Divided into the Nobility of the Sword (descended from medieval nobility) and the Nobility of the Robe (got rank through officeholding). Exempt from the taille
Bourgeoisie, artisans, shopkeepers, and peasants. Constituted 75-80% of the population, but only owned 35% of the land. subject to all taxes. were hurt by the rise in bread prices
Louis was weak and not very smart. Sexually impotent. In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and Marie were executed in 1793.
An Austrian Habsburg Princess, daughter of Maria Theresa. Not well liked because of her extravagant lifestyle.
Charles de Calonne
Financial advisor in 1780's, thought about future (unlike Necker). Called Assembly of Notables since debt was unbearable, but failed to gain support from the 1st and 2nd estates, forcing him to call the estates general
Parlement of Paris
Society of Thirty
Consisted of about 60 men who attacked absolutist government and the tyranny of the King, most liberal nobles and upper 3rd Estate
Wrote an essay called "What is the 3rd estate" Argued that lower classes were more important than the nobles and the government should be responsible to the people.
Olympe de Gouges
A journalist who demanded equal rights in her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen
He was a lawyer and a member of the National Convention. Led the Mountain side of the National Convention. Had the Mountains join forces with the sans-culottes, as well as joining the Committee of Public Safety. Helped France's financial situation through the concept of planned economy (setting price limits on certain products). He was one of the main contributors to the laws that stated the death penalty for those who went against the revolution.
Established by a group of French radical patriots who refused to give up in the Franco-Prussian War, and wanted to independantly rule Paris. Didn't want to give up Alsace-Lorraine.
The minister of Justice, called on every man to serve in the military. Popular because of his boisterous nature
French nobles who fled from France during the peasant uprisings. They were very conservative and hoped to restore the king to power.
A radical supporter of the French Revolution who used his newspaper to demand more blood. Stabbed to death by Charlotte Corday
A French congress with the power to create laws and approve declarations of war, established by the constitution of 1791.
Radical republican group in French Revolution; organized military force that saved republic, but leader Maximilien Robespierre ruled by dictatorship and set Reign of Terror into action
Considered themselves the voice of the people, didn't wear the aristocratic fancy pants. Tried to deal with the people's problems, like a lack of bread and high taxes
Moderate political faction among leaders of the French Revolution; were not the radical group, but the moderates; favored keeping the king alive
This was a political party within the National Convention. Sat on the highest benches. These people were the activists within the Convention. The Mountain worried that the Girondists would become conservative because of their already moderate beliefs. The Mountain eventually won due to their alliance with the Sans-Culottes, resulting in a more radical group of people.
The Committee of Public Safety
The National Convention formed the Committee of Public Safety and gave it dictatorial power to deal with the crisis affecting France, primarily the economic struggles for the sans-culottes. Robespierre and other Mountain representatives were members.
The third estate of the Estates General -broke from the Estates because they wanted the Estates to sit as a committee and not as segregated groups.
Formed after the execution of the leading members of the Convention and the Committee of Public Safety by the Thermidorians. It was led by five men who possessed the title of Director
A French politician and journalist during revolution who wanted to abolish private property and eliminate private enterprise. His conspiracy of equals was crushed in 1796 and he was executed in 1797.
Council of 500/Council of Ancients
The new Constitution formed by the Directory was divided into a two house legislature. The Council of Five Hundred proposed legislation that was then discussed and voted on by the Council of Five Hundred.
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804 under the title of First Consul. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814 after failure in Russia. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated at Waterloo and died in exile.
English admiral who defeated the French fleets of Napoleonat Trafalgar
Duke of Wellington
A skilled British general that defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo
French labor tax
Cahiers de doleances
Statements of local grievances, statements of local grievances that were drafted throughout France during the elections to the Estates-General
Lettres de Cachet
Used by Louis XVI; letters bearing the royal seal; used to imprison the king's enemies without charge, bail, or trial
Tennis Court Oath
A vow by members of the 3rd estate not to disband until a constitution was written
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Outlined what the National Assembly considered to be the natural rights of all people and the rights that they possessed as citizens. Religion, speech, and property
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Redefined the relationship between the clergy and the state in France. It allowed for the confiscation of church property formerly used to support the clergy, replacing it with a guarantee of state salaries for clergymen instead. Stipulated that parish priests and bishops be elected just like public officials. The National Assembly attempted to enforce it by requiring the clergy to take an oath. Divided public opinion of the French Revolution and galvanized religious opposition.
Paper currency, the French churches were used as collateral. The first French paper currency issued by the General Assembly.
The Declaration of Pillnitz
This was issued by Austria and Prussia after Louis XVI was arrested after trying to flee France by the monarchs of Austria and Prussia, stated the nations' willingness to intervene in France.
1792, during the radical stage. Austria and Prussia made this saying that they would destroy Paris if any harm came to the French king(Louis XVI)
The Concordat with the Vatican
Treaty of Pressburg
Following Austerlitz, Napoleon took Venice from Austrians and annexed it to his recently acquired kingdom in Italy. The Adriatic port cities of Venice and Trieste started building up Napoleon's fleet.
The Treaty of Tilsit
Between Tsar Alexander I and Napoleon Reduced Prussia's land to half it's previous size. This Treaty made Russia secretly and Prussia openly allies of France. Signed in 1807.
Provided a single unitary legal system for all of France. Gave equality to all people before the law and guarded property holders' rights.
Storming of the Bastille
July 14th, 1789. There had been a rumor that the king had been planning a military coup against the national Assembly. The people decided to defend their city and marched to the Bastille prison for gunpowder. This saved the National Assembly.
The Great Fear
A vast panic that spread quickly through France in 1789. Citizens, fearing invasion by foreign troops that would support the French monarchy, formed militias
The Women's March to Versailles
Seven thousand women marched to Versailles to apprehend the royal family. They tore through the rooms looking for the King, Queen and Prince. the royals were brought back to Paris
Counter revolution led by conservative forces (nobles, clergy, and the peasantry).
Dechristianization in France
The National Convention removed the word "saint" from street names, pillaged churches, and encouraged priests to marry. The cathedral of Notre Dame was designated the Temple of Reason, and a new calender was created that eliminated sundays and began on September 22, 1972 (the day the revolution was proclaimed)
Reign of Terror
This was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed
A reaction against the violence of the Reign of Terror after Robespierre was executed ( named after month of Thermidor); Terror began to decline and National Convention curtailed power of Committee of Public Safety
Louis's imprisonment was followed by the September massacres. Wild stories seized the city that imprisoned counter-revolutionary aristocrats/priests were plotting with the allied invaders. As a results, angry crowds invaded the prisons of Paris and summarily slaughtered half the men and women they found.
Republic of Virtue
The Battle of Trafalgar
Napoleon's navy defeated by british in 1805 off southern coast of spain by Horatio Nelson. Forced Napoleon to give up his plans of invading Britain.
Battle of Austerlitz
Napoleon defeated a combined force of Russia, Prussia, and Austria-Hungary making him the master of Europe.
The Continental System
Napoleon convinces Russia, Prussia, Denmark, Portugal and Spain to boycott trade with England in an attempt to weaken Great Britain. It doesn't work.
Napoleon's Invasion of Spain ("Spanish Ulcer")
Napoleon attempted to occupy Spain after King Charles IV gave the throne to his incompetent son. The people of Spain rose up against him and he was forced to brutally suppress them. Napoleon referred to this as his "Spanish ulcer"
The site of Napoleon's defeat by British and Prussian armies in 1815. They were led by the Duke of Wellington and Gebhard von Blucher. Ended Napoleon's last bid for power
The Hundred Days War
The period after Napoleon took over a second time. Ended with the Battle of Waterloo.
This war was the beginning of the end of Napoleon's Grand Empire after the Spanish rebelled against France for its independence
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon
Money given to support the clergy