of or evidencing buboes.
Began in the late 1300's and lasted till late 1600's
The cultural achievements of the 14th thru 16th centuries. Many revolutions in art took place. Ex) Leonardo Da Vinci or Michelangelo. The High Renaissance was commonly described between 1500-1527.
developed Republican Governments, in which political power theoretically resides in the people and is exercised by its chosen representatives.
Written by Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527). The subject of the Prince is political power; how the ruler should gain, maintain, and increase it.
Those converted from Jew to Christian.
The everyday speech of a particular country or region, often involving nonstandard usage.
Also known as moveable type, the Printing Press transformed both the public and private lives of Europeans. Helped widely spread propaganda.
Leon Battista Alberti was an Italian humanist that discussed morality in his On the Family; he stressed that a wife's role was restricted to the orderliness of the household, food and serving of meals, the education of the children, and the supervision of servants.
Wrote Utopia, which was written in England when Moore was serving under Henry VIII. Utopia presents a revolutionary view on society. Utopia describes an ideal socialistic community on and island in the New World.
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806.
Court of the Star Chamber
So called because of the stars painted on the ceiling of the room. The court applied principles of Roman Law and its methods were sometimes terrifying: accused persons were not entitled to see evidence against them, sessions were secret, torture could be applied to extract confessions, and juries were not called.
airborne form of the black plague that killed within days if not hours. Attacked the lungs.
Sworn associations of free men seeking complete political and economic independence from local nobles.
"A Court was the space and personnel around a Prince as he made laws, received ambassadors, made appointments, took his meals, and proceeded through the streets."
The princely court afforded the despot or oligarch the opportunity to display and assert his wealth and power.
taxes on salt influenced by Charles VII (r. 1422-1461)in France.
The rule of merchant aristocracies. By 1300 oligarchies also triumphed everywhere in Italy.
Involved the services and obligations of the peasant classes. The economic power of the warring class rested on landed estates, which were worked by peasants.
Different sections of land owned by the same country but ruled by different rulers. Were ruled by the signori.
Baldassare Castiglione wrote the Courtier. This treatise sought to train, discipline, and fashion the young man into the courtly ideal; the gentleman. Became the model of the European gentleman.
Suffered severally from disorders of 15th century. Black Death decrease in populations continued to drop, and the Hundred Years' War and War of Roses also hurt the economy. England was run by Henry IV (r. 1399-1413). And later Henry VII (r. 1485-1509).
1331 or 1348
Also known as the Black Death or Bubonic Plague, is said to have broken out in China or Central Asia. Spread Bubonically (through rats or actual touching of bubos) and Pneumonically (Spread through the air and infected the lungs). Wiped out a third of the population throughout Europe.
Disenfranchised and heavily taxed. The Popolo wanted places in the communal government and equality of taxation.
Stressed personality, uniqueness; genius, and full development of ones capabilities and talents. Persons abilities should be stretched until fully realized.
Center of royal authority that governed on a national level.
Involves a basic concern with the material world instead of with the eternal world of spirit. A secular way of thinking seems to find the ultimate explanation or everything and the final end of human beings within the limits of what the senses can discover.
the necessary factors for the industrial revolution.
Deeply inspired by John Colet, Desiderius Erasmus wrote, The Education of a Christian Prince (1504), a book combining idealistic and practical suggestions for the formation of a rulers character through the study of Plutarch, Aristotle, Cicero, and Plato. And he also wrote The Praise of Folly (1509) a satire of worldly wisdom and Christian faith of children. And most importantly he wrote a critical edition of the Greek New Testament (1516).
Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges
Asserting the superiority of a general council over the papacy. This gave the French major control over the appointment of bishops, and depriving the pope of French ecclesiastical revenues.
"Brotherhoods" which were popular groups in the towns given authority to act as local police forces and judicial tribunals. Repressed violence with savage punishments that had to be disbanded.
The revival of antiquity also took the form of profound interesting and the study of the Latin classes "new learning".
Despots, one man rulers.
The Hundred Years' War
There was a Treaty signed in 1259 in which the English King agreed to become vassal of the French crown for the duchy of Aquitaine. In 1337 Philip VI confiscated the duchy, and Edward saw this as a violation of the treaty and a reason for war. One reason the war lasted so long was because it became a French civil war.
Justices of the Peace
Influential land owners in the shires handled all the work of the local government. They apprehended and punished criminals, enforced parliamentary statutes, fixed wages and prices, maintained proper standards of weights and measures, and even checked up on moral behavior.
the act of lending money at an exorbitant rate of interest.
The striving for excellence and being a virtuous person. Humanistic aspect of Renaissance.
The treatment of light and shade in a work of art, especially to give an illusion of depth.