Unit Four: The Industrial Revolution

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anesthetic

a drug that causes lack of feeling or awareness

enclosure

ends traditional rights

James Watt

invented the steam engine

smelt

used to produce its metal from its ore

capital

of primary important; a major part in a state, or country

enterprise

an undertaking with purpose, or undertaking

entrepreneur

someone who organizes a business venture

putting out system

a simple method of producing goods

Eli Whitney

inventor of cotton gin

turnpike

the toll road

Liverpool

a large city in northwestern England

Manchester

also a city in northwestern England

urbanization

a process where cities grow, and become more "urban."

tenement

bad houses, where many immigrants lived in

labor union

an organization of workers that tried to improve working conditions, wages, and benefits for its members

Thomus Malthus

stated that the people were growing out of control, so we needed to stop the births

Jeremy Bentham

Utilitarianism creator, and he advocates "the greatest happiness for the greatest number."

utilitarianism

doctrine that the useful is the good

socialsim

a system in which society, (in terms of govern.) owns and controls the means of production

means of production

resources that are essential to the production of goods and services

Robert Owen

a British man who believed that humans would reveal their true natural goodness if they lived in a cooperate environment.

Karl Marx

founder of modern communism

communism

a social organization that based on holding all property in common, and ownership as a whole.

Proletariat

the working class

social democracy

a gradual transition from capitalism to socialism instead of a sudden violent overthrow of the system

Henry Bessemer

a man who made manufacturing steel more quickly and efficiently

Alfred Nobel

Swedish man who invented the dynamite

Michael Faraday

a English man who discovered electromagnetic induction

dynamo

used for producing electricity

Thomas Edison

inventor of the light bulb

interchangeable parts

identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufacturing

assembly line

a line that has a specific order and everyone has a job to do

stock

a supply of something available for future use

corporation

a business firm whose articles of incorporation have been approved in some state

cartel

a formal organization of producers that agree to coordinate prices and production

germ theory

the theory that all contagious diseases are caused by microorganisms

Louis Pasteur

a French chemist, who discovered that heat could kill bacteria

Robert Koch

the first man to isolate a bacterium and a virus

Florence Nightingale

founder of modern nursing

Joseph Lister

English surgeon; first to use antiseptics

urban renewal

the clearing and rebuilding and redevelopment of urban slums

mutual-aid society

self-help groups to aid sick or injured workers

standard of living

the quality of life based on the possession of necessities;

cult of domesticity

idealized view of men going out to work, while women stay out home, taking care of children

temperance movement

campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages

Elizabeth Cady

organizes women's rights convention

Stanton

helped organize the first women's rights convention

womens suffrage

women being able to vote

sojourner truth

freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women

John Dalton

developed modern atomic theory

Charles Darwin

English scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection

racism

abusive behavior towards members of another race

social gospel

movement that urged Christians to social service

romanticism

a movement in literature and art that celebrated nature rather than civilization

realism

accepting the facts of life and favoring practicality and literal truth; "realizing the truth"

Charles Dickens

English writer who wrote Oliver Twist

impressionism

an artistic movement to capture an impression of the piece they were drawing

Claude Monet

a French painter who used a impressionism called "super-realism,"

Vincent ban Gogh

post-impressionist

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