Chapter 16: Psychological Disorders

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Psychological Disorder

a "harmful dysfunction" in which behavior is judged to be atypical, distrubing, maladaptive, and unjustifiable.

Medical Perspective

the concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and cured.

Bio-psycho-social Perspective

a contemporary perspective which assumes that biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors cobine and interact to produce psychological disorders.

DSM-IV

the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

Neurotic Disorder

a psychological disorder that is usually distressing but that allows one to think rationally and function socially.

Psychotic

a psychological disorer in which a person loses contact with reality experianceing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions.

Anxiety Disorder

psychological disorders charaterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors to reduce anxiety.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

an anzeiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal.

Panic Disorder

an anxiety disorder marked by a minutes long episode of intesne dread in which a person experiances terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other sensations.

Phobia

an anxiety disorder makred by a persistent irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation.

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts and or actions.

Fear Conditioning

rats are conditioned to fear the lab enviornment, after receiving shocks everytime they entered.

Stimulus Generalization

A person who fears heights after a fall may be afraid of airplanes without ever having flown.

Reinforcement

helps maintain phobias and compulsions. Avoiding a feared situation reduces anxiety and produces reinforcement.

Observational Learning

Learning from observing others' fear.

Learning Perspective

Observational learning, reinforcement, stimulus generalization, and fear conditioning.

Biological Perspective

Natural Selection, genes, and physiology.

Mood Disorders

psychological disorders characterized by emotional extreams.

Major Depressive Disorder

a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiances two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest.

Manic Episode

a mood disorder marked by hyperactive, wildly optimistic state.

Bipolar Disorder

a mood disorder in which the person alternates between a depressed and manic state.

Dissociative Disorders

disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.

Dissociative Identity Disorder

a rare dissociative disorder in which a person edhibits two or more sitince and alternating personalities.

Delusions

false beliefs that may accompany psychotic behavior.

Paranoid Schizophrenia

Preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations, often with themes of presecution or grandiosity.

Disorganized Schizophrenia

Disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriate emotion.

Catatonic Schizophrenia

immobility or excessive, purposeless movement, extream negativity, or parotlike repeating of another's speech and movement.

Undifferentiated Schizophrenia

Many and varied symptoms.

Residual Schizophrenia

Withdrawl, after hallucinations and delusions have disappeared.

Antisocial Personality Disorder

a personality disorder in which the person exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever conartist.

Autistic Disorder

social relationships and communication problems.

Rett's Disorder

only occurs in females, very rare, up to the age of two the girl is normal, and then suddenly the head stops growing and she becomes mentally disabled.

Asperger's Disorder

Autism, learning disablity, obsessive tendency, and is antisocial.

Conduct Disorder

Leads into antisocial disorder, criminal tendencys.

Learning Disorders

Dyslexia, Disorder of written expression, mathematics disorder.

Communication Disorders

Expressive Language disorder, phonological disorder, and stuttering.

Somatoform Disorder

Marked by physical symptoms that have no known physical explanation.

Pain Disorder

psychological factors cause pain, distress, not intentional, very detailed discriptions.

Hypochondriasis

always think they have a serious disease.

Conversion Disorder

sensory or motor; loss of voice, loss of smell, loss of hearing, paralysis; anxiety based.

Malingering

a physical concern. Fake a compacity to get out of responsablity.

Body Dysmorphic Disorder

preoccupied with imagined body faults; spend most time looking at ones' self.

Histrionic

excessively shallow, always center of attention, overdramatic.

Narcissistic

exagerated idea of self importance.

Borderline

depressed, crave intamacy but repell it, fragile egos, druggies, poor self image.

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