World Regional Geography - Middle East & Nth Africa, Ch 6

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Source in whole or in part from Fundamentals of World Regional Geography, 2nd edition, by J. J. Hobbs; and some of my own notes

anti-Semitism

Anti-Jewish sentiments and activities.

archipelago

A chain or group of islands.

basin irrigation

The ancient Egyptian system of cultivation using fields saturated by seasonal impoundment of Nile floodwaters.

bazaar (suq)

The central market of the traditional Middle Eastern city, characterized by twisting, close-set lanes and merchant stalls.

carter doctrine

President Jimmy Carter's declaration, following the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, that the United States would use any means necessary to defend its vital interests in the Persian Gulf Region. The "vital interests" were interpreted to mean oil, and "any means necessary" interpreted to mean that the United States would go to war with the Soviet Union if oil supplies were threatened.

chokepoint

A strategic narrow passageway on land or sea that may be closed off by force or threat of force.

crusades

A series of European Christian military campaigns between the 11th and 14th centuries aimed at recapturing Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land from the Muslims.

Diaspora

The scattering of the Jews outside Palestine beginning in the Roman Era.

drought avoidance

Adaptations of desert plants and animals to evade dry conditions by migrating (animals) or being active only when wet conditions occur (plants and animals).

drought endurance

Adaptations of desert plants and animals to tolerate dry conditions through water storage and heat loss mechanisms.

energy crisis

The petroleum shortages and price surges sparked by the 1973 oil embargo.

fertile crescent

The arc-shaped area stretching from southern Iraq through northern Iraq, southern Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and western Jordan, where plants and animals were domesticated beginning about 10,000 years ago.

final status issues

Issues deferred to the end of the Oslo Peace Process between Israel and the PLO. Finally dealt with at Camp David in 2000, they included the status of Jerusalem, the fate of Palestinian refugees, Palestinian statehood, and borders between Israel and a new Palestinian state. The negotiations broke down over these.

fossil waters

Virtually nonrenewable freshwater supplies, the product of ancient rainfall stored in deep natural underground aquifers, especially in the Middle East and North Africa.

Gulf War

The 1990-1991 confrontation between a large military coalition, spearheaded by the United States, and the Iraqi forces that had invaded Kuwait. The allies successfully drove Iraqi forces from Kuwait. Earlier, the Gulf War had referred to the 1980-1988 war between Iraq and Iran.

Haj

The pilgrimage to Mecca, the principal holy city in the Islamic religion. Every Muslim is required to make this pilgrimage at least once in a lifetime, if possible.

horizontal migration

The movements of pastoral nomads over relatively flat areas to reach areas of pasture and water.

ideology

A system of political and/or economic beliefs such as communism, capitalism, autocracy, or democracy.

law of return

An Israeli law permitting all Jews living in Israel to have Israeli citizenship.

material culture

The items that can be seen and associated with cultural development, such as house architecture, musical instruments and tools. It adds considerable personality to cultural identity.

medina

An urban pattern typical of the Middle Eastern city before the 20th century.

Middle Eastern ecological trilogy

The model of mostly symbiotic relations among villagers, pastoral nomads, and urbanites in the Middle East.

occupied territories

The territories captured by Israel in the 1967 War: the Gaza Strip and West Bank, captured respectively from Egypt and Jordan, and the Golan Heights, captured from Syria.

oil embargo

The 1973 embargo on oil exports imposed by Arab members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) against the United States and the Netherlands.

Palestine Liberation Organization

The Palestinian military and civilian organization created in the 1960s to resist Israel and recognized in the 1990s as the sole legitimate organization representing official Palestinian interests internationally.

patrilineal descent system

A kinship naming system based on descent through the male line.

perennial irrigation

The year-round irrigated cultivation of crops, as in the Nile Valley following construction of barrages and dams.

Pillars of Islam

The five fundamental tenets of the faith of Islam.

pivotal countries

Those countries whose collapse would cause international refugee migration, war, pollution, disease epidemics, or other international security problems.

qanat

A tunnel used to carry irrigation and drinking water from an underground source by gravity flow. Also known as foggara or karez.

Palestinian right of return

The Palestinian Arab principle that refugees (and their descendants) displaced from Israel and the Occupied Territories in the 1948 and 1967 wars be allowed to return to the region.

salinization

The deposition of salts on, and subsequent fertility loss in, soils experiencing a combination of overwatering and high evaporation.

sand sea

A virtual ocean of sand characteristic of parts of the Middle East, where people, plants, and animals are all but nonexistent.

sedentarization

Voluntary or coerced settling down, particularly by pastoral nomads in the Middle East.

segmentary kinship system

The organization of kinship groups in concentric units of membership, as of lineage, clan, and tribe among Middle Eastern pastoral nomads.

Shi'a Islam

The branch of Islam regarding male descendants of Ali, the cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad, as the only rightful successors to the Prophet Muhammad.

shifting cultivation

A cycle of land use between crop and fallow years that is needed to work around the infertility of tropical soils. After clearing tropical forest, a farmer may get only a few years of crops before there is no fertility in the soil and must move on to clear more land. In the meantime, forest reclaims the previously farmed plots.

sovereign state

A political unit that has achieved political independence and maintains itself as a separate unit.

Sunni Islam

The branch of Islam regarding successorship to the Prophet Muhammad as a matter of consensus among religious elders.

vertical migration

Movements of pastoral nomads between low winter and high summer pastures.

westernization

The process whereby non-Western societies acquire Western traits, which are adopted with varying degrees of completeness.

Zionist movement

The political effort, beginning in the late 19th century, to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine.

swidden

type of cultivation, also known as slash-and-burn cultivation, where new lands are not available, and fallow periods on old fields are reduced or eliminated, resulting in soil deterioration.

Saudi Arabia

Name the country labelled A

Kuwait

Name the country labelled B

UAE

Name the country labelled C

Oman

Name the country labelled D

Yemen

Name the country labelled E

Qatar

Name the country labelled F

Jordan

Name the country labelled G

Bahrain

Name the country labelled H

Morocco

Name the country labelled A

Algeria

Name the country labelled B

Tunisia

Name the country labelled C

Libya

Name the country labelled D

Egypt

Name the country labelled E

Sudan (note: before 2011 division)

Name the country labelled F

Turkey

Name the country labelled A

Iran

Name the country labelled B

Afghanistan

Name the country labelled C

Iraq

Name the country labelled D

Syria

Name the country labelled E

Lebanon

Name the country labelled F

Israel

Name the country labelled G

transhumance

The movement of pastoral nomads and their herd animals between low-elevation winter pastures and high-elevation summer pastures. Also known as vertical migration.

Suez Canal

Name the choke point labelled A

Strait of Tiran

Name the choke point labelled B

Strait of Hormuz

Name the choke point labelled C

Bab el-Mandeb

Name the choke point labelled D

Red Sea

The Suez Canal is located between the Mediterranean Sea and what other major water body?

Atlantic, Mediterranean

The Strait of Gibralta is located between which two seas?

Indian, Persian Gulf

The Strait of Hormuz is located between which ocean and which major water body?

Bosphoros

At the choke point between the Black sea and Mediterranean Sea, which is the northern most choke point?

Dardanelles

At the choke point between the Black sea and Mediterranean Sea, which is the southern most choke point?

Bab el-Mandel

Which choke point is located between the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden?

Strait of Hormuz

Which choke point is located between the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean?

The Red Sea

The Suez Canal connects the Mediterranean with which sea?

Straight of Hormuz

Oil that leaves Iraq for Europe or the United States must first pass through _______

Mediterranean Sea

The Dardanelles and Bosporus connect the Black Sea with the ________

villager, pastoral nomad, urbanite

What are the three components of the Middle Eastern ecological trilogy?

Egypt, Turkey, Iran

Which are the three countries in the North Africa and Middle East geographical region that have the highest populations?

Along the coast and rivers and in the fertile crescent

Where is the densest population in the North Africa and Middle East geographical region?

Nile, Tigris, Euphrates

Which three large rivers are critical in attracting higher population densities than other areas of the North Africa and Middle East geographical region?

agriculture, trade

In the Middle Eastern ecological trilogy, what do the villagers provide?

production, tools, education, trade

In the Middle Eastern ecological trilogy, what do the urbanites provide?

erg, hamada, reg

What are the three primary types of landform in the desert?

animals (sheep, goats, camels, not cattle)

In the Middle Eastern ecological trilogy, what do the nomads provide?

farsi

What language do most people in Iran speak?

Iran

What is Persia now called?

desert, semiarid-steppe, mediterranean

What are the three main climate types in the North Africa and Middle East geographical region?

nomadic herding

what is the main land use over the North Africa and Middle East geographical region (in terms of area of land)?

mediterranean, shifting cultivation, subsistence farming

What are the three main land uses in the North Africa and Middle Eastern region (in terms of population)?

Armenian, Christian, Muslim, Jewish

What are the four quarters of Jerusalem

Islam

What is the dominant religion of the region?

Shi'a, Sunni

What are the two main branches of Islam?

Iran

In the North Africa and Middle Eastern region, where are the Shiites mostly located?

afganistan, kuwait, yemen, gulf states

Apart from Iran, in which four areas of the North Africa and Middle Eastern region are there significant Shiite Muslim communities?

profess faith

What are the five primary tenets of Islam? 1) ______, 2) five prayers to Mecca daily, 3) almsgiving, 4) fasting in Ramadan, 5) Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca

five prayers to Mecca daily

What are the five primary tenets of Islam? 1) profess faith, 2) ______, 3) almsgiving, 4) fasting in Ramadan, 5) Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca

almsgiving

What are the five primary tenets of Islam? 1) profess faith, 2) five prayers to Mecca daily, 3) ______, 4) fasting in Ramadan, 5) Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca

fasting in Ramadan

What are the five primary tenets of Islam? 1) profess faith, 2) five prayers to Mecca daily, 3) almsgiving, 4) ______, 5) Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca

Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca

What are the five primary tenets of Islam? 1) profess faith, 2) five prayers to Mecca daily, 3) almsgiving, 4) fasting in Ramadan, 5) ______

origin of old civilizations, domestication

Why is this region known as a cultural hearth?

zagrus mountains of Iran, mesopotamia

where did domestication first occur?

subsistence agriculture

What is the primary land use along the major river systems of the North Africa and Middle East geographical region?

origin of old civilizations

Why is this region known as a cultural hearth?

fertile crescent (iraq and syria)

Where is the primary ancient cultural hearth of this region?

growth since WW11

How does the economic development of Israel differ from most countries in the region? 1) _________, 2) large capital investment from outside, 3) industry and service based economy, not oil or agriculture

large capital investment from outside

How does the economic development of Israel differ from most countries in the region? 1) growth since WW11, 2) _________, 3) industry and service based economy, not oil or agriculture

industry and service based economy, not oil or agriculture

How does the economic development of Israel differ from most countries in the region? 1) growth since WW11, 2) large capital investment from outside, 3) _________

water and oil

Which resources have had an important effect on the regions political and military situation?

Britain, France, Spain, Italy

What were the major colonial powers in this region?

Britain

What was the colonial power operating in Egypt in early 20th Century?

spain, france

What were the colonial powers operating in Morocco in early 20th Century?

France

What was the colonial power operating in Tunisia in early 20th Century?

France

What was the colonial power operating in Algeria in early 20th Century?

France

What was the colonial power operating in Syria in early 20th Century?

Britain

What was the colonial power operating in Iraq in early 20th Century?

Britain

What was the colonial power operating in Kuwait in early 20th Century?

Britain

What was the colonial power operating in Sudan in early 20th Century?

Italy

What was the colonial power operating in Libya in early 20th Century?

established political boundaries without consulting the people

How did the legacy of the major colonial powers effect the present political situation?

usufruct

What is the term for the right to use resources without using it up (commons)

oil

What is a major source of the contrast between rich and poor countries in the North Africa and Middle East geographical region?

Cairo

what is the primate city in Egypt

origins on Arabian peninsula

What are four key similarities between Jews, Christians and Moslems? 1) _________, 2) all monotheistic, 3) all text based, 4) revere Abraham (Abrahamic religions)

all monotheistic

What are four key similarities between Jews, Christians and Moslems? 1) origins on Arabian peninsula, 2) _________, 3) all text based, 4) revere Abraham (Abrahamic religions)

all text based

What are four key similarities between Jews, Christians and Moslems? 1) origins on Arabian peninsula, 2) all monotheistic, 3) _________, 4) revere Abraham (Abrahamic religions)

revere Abraham (Abrahamic religions)

What are four key similarities between Jews, Christians and Moslems? 1) origins on Arabian peninsula, 2) all monotheistic, 3) all text based, 4) _________

when Russia invaded Afganistan 1979

When was the "Carter Doctrine" promulgated?

1948

When did Israel proclaim itself into existence?

1956

In which year did Britain, France and Israel invade Egypt to keep Suez open when Egypt nationalized it?

1967

In which year was the Six day war Egypt closed the Strait of Tiran to Israel shipping and Israel fought back and won?

1972

In which year did Arab coalition invade Israel on Yom Kippur holiday to get land back they'd lost previously?

1973

in which year was the Energy Crisis when OPEC imposed an oil embargo on the west?

Saudi arabia (sunni) and Iran (shiite)

What are the two primary centers of Islamic political power in the region?

sunni

Saudi Arabia is a centre of political power for which Islamic sect?

shiite

Iran is a centre of political power for which Islamic sect?

shiite

Which Islamic minority controls government in Syria?

student movement that tried to stop civil war

What is the Taliban?

to get money

Why did the Taliban support Al Qaeda?

sunni and shiite differences

Aside from the Arab/Israeli conflict, what are other sources of religions, ethnic and ideological conflict?

right of return for Palestinians

What are major impediments to implementation of the "Two-State Solution"? 1) _________, 2) status of Jerusalem

status of Jerusalem

What are major impediments to implementation of the "Two-State Solution"? 1) right of return for Palestinians, 2) _________

organization of petroleum exporting countries

What is OPEC?

fight against corruption and repressive governments

What is the "Arab Spring"?

Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, Libya, Syria

What countries are impacted by the "Arab Spring"?

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