(Auto Deploy) vSphere Auto Deploy installs the ESXi image directly into:
(Auto Deploy) By default, hosts deployed with VMware Auto Deploy store logs in:
(Auto Deploy) When deploying hosts with VMware Auto Deploy, *blank* is the recommended method to configure ESXi once it has been installed.
(Auto Deploy) Benefits of auto deploy:
decouples the Vmware ESXi host from the physical server and eliminates the boot disk, eliminates configuration drift, simplifies patching and updating.
(Auto Deploy) the quickest possible way to deploy > 10 ESXi hosts.
VMware Auto Deploy Installation
(Blank) recommended install method to evaluate vSphere 5 on a small ESXi host setup.
What defines the image profiles used with auto deploy?
The vSphere power CLI image builder cmdlet
3 ways that vSphere Auto Deploy can access the answer file:
CIFS, SFTP, HTTP.
In a HA cluster after an initial election process, host is either
Master or Slave
A HA Slot is:
a logical representation of the memory and CPU resources that satisfy the requirements for any powered-on virtual machine in the cluster.
The 4 VM Restart Priority options available on a HA cluster:
disabled, low, medium, high
The three Host Isolation Response options available on a HA Cluster are:
shut down, power off, leave powered on
If the 'Admission Control' option 'Disable: Allow VM power on operations that violate availability constraints' is selected, then...
only VMs with a high restart priority are restarted on surviving ESXi hosts.
VMware vSphere can be evaluated for:
Free vSphere Hypervisor is allowed:
32GB physical RAM per host
If more vRAM is allocated than licensed for, new VM's cannot be:
(Licensing - Entitlements per CPU license) Essentials, Essentials Plus, Standard:
32GB vRAM, 8-way vCPU
(Licensing - Entitlements per CPU license)
64GB vRAM, 8-way vCPU
(Licensing - Entitlements per CPU license)
96GB vRAM, 32-way vCPU
(Licensing) High Availability, Data Recovery, vMotion
(Licensing) High Availability, Data Recovery, vMotion
(Licensing) High Availability, Data Recovery, vMotion + Virtual Serial Port Concentrator, Hot Add, vShield Zones, Fault Tolerance, Storage APIs for Array Integration, Storage vMotion, Distributed Resource Scheduler & Distributed Power Management
(Licensing) High Availability, Data Recovery, vMotion + Virtual Serial Port Concentrator, Hot Add, vShield Zones, Fault Tolerance, Storage APIs for Array Integration, Storage vMotion, Distributed Resource Scheduler & Distributed Power Management + Distributed Switch, I/O Controls (Network and Storage), Host Profiles, Auto deploy, Profile-Driven Storage, Storage DRS
VMX Swap can be used to reduce:
virtual machine memory overhead
Memory allocation - memory limit =
amount of virtual machine memory that will always be composed of disk pages.
(virtual) Non-Uniform Memory Access (a computer memory design used in multiprocessors where the memory access time depends on the memory location relative to a processor.)
vNUMA is enabled by default when:
a virtual machine has more than 8 vCPU's.
Disabling transparent memory page sharing increases:
For maximum perfomance benefits of vNUMA:
make sure your clusters are composed entirely of hosts with matching NUMA architecture.
Memory reservation is:
the amount of physical memory that is guaranteed to the VM.
Host memory usage is:
amount of physical host memory allocated to a guest (includes virtualisation overhead.)
Guest memory usage is:
amount of memory actively used by a guest operating system and it's applications.
3 metrics to diagnose a memory bottleneck at the ESXi host level:
MEMSZ, MEMCTL, SWAP.
Virtual Machine Memory Overhead is determined by:
Configured Memory and Number of vCPUs.
New features made available with vSphere 5:
sDRS, VSA, vSphere Web Client, SplitRX...
ESX is available with 5... true or false:
False - ESX is no longer available with vSphere 5
Via the Direct Console, it is possible to:
Configure Host DNS, Shutdown host, view host logs
Via the Direct Console, it is NOT possible to:
enter a host into maintenance mode
vMotion has been improved by:
allowing multiple vMotion vmknics, allowing for more and faster vMotion operations
Image Builder is used to create:
ESXi installation images with a customized set of updates, patches, and drivers
Packaging format used by the VMware ESXi Image Builder:
By default, the Administrator role at the ESX Host Server level is assigned to:
root & vpxuser
Distributed Power Management (DPM) requires Wake On LAN (WOL) technology on host NIC ... true or false
ESXi 5.0 supports ___ & ___ CPU instructions.
LAHF and SAHF
The three default roles provided on an ESXi host are:
No Access, Read Only, Administrator
ESXi Dump Collector is:
a new feature of vSphere 5
Automation Levels on a DRS Cluster:
Manual, Partially Automated, Fully Automated
ESXi 5.0 introduces Virtual Hardware VM Version:
To disable alarm actions for a DRS cluster while maintenance is taking place:
Right-Click the DRS cluster, select Alarm → 'Disable Alarm Actions.'
3 valid objects to place in a vApp:
Resource pools, vApps, Virtual Machines.
Required settings for a kick start ESXi host upgrade script file:
root password & IP address.
vMotion cannot be used unless:
RDM boot mapping files are placed on the same datastore
true or false:
storage vMotion cannot be used with RDMs using NPIV
Conditions that would stop virtual machines restarting in the event of a host failure in a HA cluster:
1) An anti-affinity rule configured where restarting the VMs would place them on the same host.
2) The virtual machines on the failed host are HA disabled.
The VMkernel is secured by the features:
memory hardening and kernel module integrity.
VMware vCloud Director pools virtual infrastructure resources in data centers and
delivers them to users as a catalog-based service.
Two ways to enable remote tech support mode (SSH) on an ESXi 5.x host:
1. Through the Security Profile pane of the Configuration tab in the vSphere Client.
2. Through the Direct Console User inferface (DCUI.)
%WAIT metric is checked to determine if:
CPU contention exists on an ESXi 5.x host.
Quiescing virtual machine snapshot operation:
1) Requires VMware tools. 2) Ensures that the snapshot includes a power state. 3) May alter the behaviour of applications within the virtual machine. 4) Ensures all pending disk I/O operations are written to disk.
Image Profile Acceptance Levels:
Community Supported < Partner Supported < VMware Accepted < VMware Certified (where VMware Certified Acceptance Level has the most stringent requirements.)
Each VMware Data Recovery appliance can have no more than:
two dedupe destinations
it is recommended that each dedupe destination is no more than:
1TB in size when using virtual disks, and no more than 500GB in size when using a CIFS network share.
ESX 4.X to ESXi 5.0 upgrade removes the:
service console port group because ESXi 5.0 has no Service Console.
SplitRX can be used to increase:
network throughput to virtual machines.
The default security policy on a Port Group
Reject, Accept, Accept (Promiscuous Mode, MAC Address Changes, Forged Transmits.)
ESX 4.X to ESXi 5.0 upgrade process migrates all
vswif interfaces to vmk interfaces.
SSH configuration is not migrated for ESX 4.x hosts or ESXi 4.0 hosts because: (SSH access is disabled during the migration or upgrade process.)
SSH access is disabled during the migration or upgrade process.
Custom ports that were opened by using the ESX/ESXi 4.1 esxcfg-firewall command
do not remain open after upgrade to ESXi 5.0
A (blank) has been added to ESXi 5.0 to improve security.
vSphere Standard Switch Traffic shaping settings:
Status - Disabled/Enabled, Average Bandwidth (Kbit/sec), Peak Bandwidth (Kbit/sec), Burst Size (Kbytes.)
To relieve a network bottleneck caused by a VM with occasional high outbound network activity:
apply traffic shaping to the port group that contains the virtual machine.
NIC Teaming policy:
Notify Switches → the physical switch is notified when the location of a virtual NIC changes.
A remote SSH connection to a newly installed ESXi 5.x host fails, possible causes:
The SSH service is disabled on the host by default. The ESXi firewall blocks the SSH protocol by default.
allows packets to be created by a virtual machine with different source MAC address.
When a new uplink is added to a vSphere Standard Switch configured with IP based load balancing uplinks - by default configuration:
the uplink is considered active/active but it will not participate in the active NIC team until assigned to a port group.
To verify all IP storage VMkernel interfaces are configured for jumbo frames, either:
1) esxcli network IP interface list. 2) View the VMkernel interface properties in the vSphere client.
Map view indicates vMotion is disabled:
vMotion has not been enabled on a VMkernel port group.
ESXi Host → Configuration Tab → Network Adapters : Headings =
Device, Speed, Configured, Switch, MAC Address, Observed IP Ranges, Wake on LAN Supported.
If you create a portgroup and assign it to VLAN 4095
it will have access to all the VLANs that are exposed to the physical NIC (a special driver is needed within the VM that can properly tag VLANs.)
The Dynamic Binding dvPort binding type has been removed in vSphere 5
leaving Ephemeral Binding and Static Binding types.
Network Load Balancing policies for vSphere Distributed Switch
Route based on originating virtual port; Route based on IP hash; Route based on source MAC hash; Route based on physical NIC load; Use explicit failover order.
Requirements for a collector virtual machine to analyze traffic from a vSphere Distributed Switch:
1) The source and target virtual machines must both be on a vNetwork Switch, but can be on any vDS datacenter. 2) The port group on distributed port must have NetFlow enabled.
Two methods to migrate a virtual machine from a vSphere Standard Switch (VSS) to a vSphere Distributed Switch (VDS):
1) Migrate the port group containing the virtual machine from a vNetwork Standard Switch using the Migrate Virtual machine networking option.
2) Edit the Network Adapater settings for the virtual machine and select a dvPort group from the list.
3 features only available when using a vSphere Distributed Switch:
1) NetFlow monitoring. 2) Network I/O control. 3) Egress and ingress traffic shaping.
New feature: vSphere Distributed Switch:
Improves visibility of virtual-machine traffic through NetFlow and enhances monitoring and troubleshooting through Switched Port Analyzer (SPAN) and Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) support.
SSH operates on port :
enter Server requires port 80 for:
direct HTTP connections
Port 80 redirects requests to HTTPS port:
This is the LDAP port number for the Directory Services for the vCenter Server group.
The vCenter Server system needs to bind to port 389, even if you are not joining this vCenter Server instance to a Linked Mode group.
The default port that the vCenter Server system uses to listen for connections from the vSphere Client.
The vCenter Server system also uses port 443 to monitor:
data transfer from SDK clients.
For vCenter Server Linked Mode, this is the SSL port of the local instance.
The default port that the vCenter Server system uses to send data to managed hosts.
Other uses of port 902:
Managed hosts also send a regular heartbeat over UDP port 902 to the vCenter Server system. This port must NOT be blocked by firewalls between the server and the hosts or between hosts. Also must NOT be blocked between the vSphere Client and the hosts. The vSphere Client uses this port to display virtual machine consoles.
Web Services HTTP. Used for the VMware VirtualCenter Management Web Services.
Web Services HTTPS. Used for the VMware VirtualCenter Management Web Services.
vCenter Inventory Service Service Management
vCenter Inventory Service Linked Mode Communication
vCenter Inventory Service HTTPS
Web Service change service notification port
vStorage Thin Provisioning feature provides
dynamic allocation of storage capacity
Upgrade from VMFS-3 to VMFS-5 requires how much downtime?
VMFS-5 is introduced by vSphere
The globally unique identifier assigned to each Fibre Channel Port
world wide name (wwn)
what is the protocol is used by an ESXi host to communicate with NAS devices
It is now possible in vSphere 5 to
Storage vMotion virtual machines that have snapshots
Two iSCSI discovery methods supported by an ESXi host
static discovery & send targets
VMFS-5 upgraded from VMFS-3 continues to use
the previous file block size which may be larger than the unified 1MB file block size
Shared local storage - is or is not - a supported location for a host diagnostic partition
The - blank- lists the correct MPP (Multi-Pathing Protocol) to use with a storage array
To guarantee a certain level of capacity, performance, availability, and redundancy for a virtual machines storage use the
Profile-Driven Storage feature of vSphere 5
Use - blank - to ensure storage is utilized evenly
sDRS (storage DRS)
If an ESXi 5.x host is configured to boot from Software iSCSI adapter and the administrator disables the iSCSI Software adapter
then it will be disabled but is re-enabled the next time the host boots up.
An array that supports vStorage APIs for array integration (VAAI) can directly perform →
Cloning virtual machines and templates; Migrating virtual machines using Storage vMotion.
VAAI thin provisioning dead space reclamation feature can reclaim blocks on a thin provisioned LUN array:
1) When a virtual machine is migrated to a different datastore. 2) When a virtual disk is deleted.
Manage Paths →
can disable path by right-clicking and selecting disable
A preferred path selection can only be made with Fixed 'Path Selection' types
not Round robin or MRU (most recently used)
Information about a VMFS datastore available via the Storage Views tab includes →
Multipathing Status, Space Used, Snapshot Space.
Two benefits of virtual compatibility mode RDMs vs physical compatibility mode RDMs:
1) Allows for cloning. 2) Allows for template creation of the related virtual machine
To uplink a Hardware FCoE Adapter
create a vSphere Standard Switch and add the FCoE Adapter as an uplink.
Three storage I/O control conditions that might trigger the non-VI workload detected on the datastore alarm:
1) The datastore is on an array that is performing system tasks such as replication. 2) The datastore is utilizing active/passive multipathing or NMP (Native Multi-Pathing.) 3) The datastore is storing virtual machines with one or more snapshots.
The software iSCSI Adapter and Dependent Hardware iSCSI Adapter require how many vmkernel ports?
one or more
Unplanned Device Loss in a vSphere 5 environment:
A condition where an ESXi host determines a device loss has occurred that was not planned. Performing a storage rescan removes the persistent information related to the device.
To convert thin provisioned disk to thick either use the:
inflate option in the Datastore Browser or use Storage vMotion and change the disk type to Thick.
To manage storage placement by using virtual machine profiles with a storage array that supports vSphere Storage APIs (Storage Awareness):
1 Create user-defined storage capabilities.
2 Associate user-defined storage capabilities with datastores.
3 Enable virtual machine storage profiles for a host or cluster.
4 Create virtual machine storage profiles by defining the storage capabilities that an application running on a virtual machine requires.
5 Associate a virtual machine storage profile with the virtual machine files or virtual disks.
6 Verify that virtual machines and virtual disks use datastores that are compliant with their associated virtual machine storage profile
Update Manager can or cannot be used to upgrade the vCenter Server Appliance.
Default Hosts upgrade baselines included with vSphere Update Manager:
critical host patches and non-critical host patches
Default VMs/VAs upgrade baselines included with vSphere Update Manager:
VMware Tools Upgrade to Match Host, VM Hardware Upgrade to Match Host, VA Upgrade to Latest.
vSphere 5 vCenter Update Manager can or cannot update virtual machine hardware when running against legacy hosts.
vCenter Service Appliance remediation via Update Manager 5.0 first requires:
configuration on the Appliance Administration page.
vCenter Server 5 requires a -blank- Bit DSN
vCenter Heartbeat product provides - what - for vCenter server
vCenter requires a valid (internal)
domain name system (DNS) registration
vCenter 4.1 and vCenter 5.0 can or cannot be joined with Linked-Mode
The VMware vSphere Storage Appliance manager (VSA manager) is installed on the
vSphere 5 vCenter Server System
Optional components that can be installed from the VMware vSphere 5.0 vCenter Installer:
Product Installers- vSphere Client, VMware vSphere Web Client (Server), VMware vSphere Update Manager. Support tools-VMware ESXi Dump Collector, VMware Syslog Collector, VMware Auto Deploy, VMware vSphere Authentication Proxy. Utility) vCenter Host Agent Pre-Upgrade Checker.
Predefined vCenter Server roles are:
No access, Read-only, Administrator (there are also 6 sample roles.)
To export ESXi 5.x host diagnostic information / logs from a host managed by a vCenter server instance using the vSphere Client:
1) Home → Administration → System Logs → Export System Logs → Source: select the ESXi host → Select System Logs: Select all → Select a Download Location → Finish. 2) Under 'Hosts and Clusters' view select the ESXi host → File → Export → Export System Logs → Select System Logs: Select all → Select a Download Location → Finish.
Medium deployment of up to 50 hosts and 500 powered-on VMs:
2 cores, 4GB RAM, 5GB disk
Large deployment of up to 300 hosts and 3000 powered-on VMs:
4 cores, 8GB RAM, 10GB disk
Extra-Large deployment of up to 1000 hosts and 10'000 powered-on VMs:
8 cores, 16GB RAM, 10GB disk