Key People in Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
|Nicholas Copernicus|| |
Polish astronomer in 1514 he discovered that Earth and other planets revolve around the sun
|Johannes Kepler|| |
Assistant to Brahe; used Brahe's data to prove that the earth moved in an elliptical, not circular, orbit; Wrote 3 laws of planetary motion based on mechanical relationships and accurately predicted movements of planets in a sun-centered universe; Demolished old systems of Aristotle and Ptolemy
|Tycho Brahe|| |
Danish Astronamer who produced large amounts of astromatical data but believed that other planets rotated around the sun while the sun and moon rotated around the earth
|Galileo Galilei|| |
Italian astronomer, mathematician, and physicist. His telescopes proved the sun is the center of the solar system and that the planets/moon move. He was persecuted for supporting Copernicus' ideas.
|William Harvey|| |
English physician and scientist who described the circulation of the blood
|Isaac Newton|| |
English mathematician and scientist who invented differential calculus and formulated the theory of universal gravitation, a theory about the nature of light, and three laws of motion.
|Robert Hooke|| |
English scientist who discovered the cellular structure of cork.
|Francis Bacon|| |
English politician and writer, advocated that new knowledge was acquired through an inductive reasoning process (using specific examples to prove or draw conclusion from a general point) foundation of the scientific method
|John Locke|| |
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
|Thomas Hobbes||English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)|
|David Hume|| |
Scottish philosopher whose sceptical philosophy restricted human knowledge to that which can be perceived by the senses (1711-1776)
|Philosophes||Philosophers of the Enlightenment|
French philosopher and writer whose works epitomize the Age of Enlightenment, often attacking injustice and intolerance
|Baron de Montesquieu|
French aristocrat who wanted to limit royal absolutism; Wrote The Spirit of Laws, urging that power be separated between executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each balancing out the others, thus preventing despotism and preserving freedom. This greatly influenced writers of the US Constitution. He greatly admired British form of government.
|Denis Diderot|| |
French philosopher who was a leading figure of the Enlightenment in France
|Jean-Jacques Rousseau|| |
French philosopher and writer born in Switzerland; believed that the natural goodness of man was warped by society; ideas influenced the French Revolution (1712-1778)
|Immanuel Kant|| |
influential German idealist philosopher (1724-1804)
|Thomas Paine|| |
American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809) and wrote The Common Sense
|Thomas Jefferson|| |
Virginian, architect, author, governor, and president. Lived at Monticello. Wrote the Declaration of Independence. Second governor of Virgina. Third president of the United States. Designed the buildings of the University of Virginia.
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