Chapter 15: Darwin and Evolution

Created by daw2034 

Upgrade to
remove ads

44 terms · These questions are taken from a study guide for Biology 102 using the book Biology 10th edition by Sylvia S. Mader.

Which of the following is NOT involved in natural selection?
A. There is always competition for resources.
B. Organisms differ in reproductive success.
C. There are inheritable variations in populations.
D. The desired traits are chosen by a breeder.

D. The desired traits are chosen by a breeder.

The theory of __________ proposed that a series of catastrophes or mass extinctions followed by repopulation could explain why species change over time.
A. descent with modification
B. inheritance of acquired traits
C. uniformitarianism
D. catastrophism

D. catastrophism

Two fossilized remains are found and scientists assume the two organisms are different but related. Which of the following would determine the relatedness of these two organisms?
A. homologous structures
B. vestigial structures
C. biogeography
D. All of the choices could be examined to determine relatedness.

D. All of the choices could be examined to determine relatedness.

Darwin's theory of natural selection to explain evolution is also known as
A. descent with modification.
B. inheritance of acquired characteristics.
C. uniformitarianism.
D. catastrophism.

A. descent with modification.

"Evolution" is a Latin term that comes from the root word meaning
A. species.
B. new.
C. anti-religious.
D. fossils.
E. unrolling.

E. unrolling.

Which of the following ideas was most commonly held in the eighteenth century?
A. evolution by natural selection over time
B. genetic change through mutation
C. the fixity of species
D. changes in a species through adaptation to the environment

C. the fixity of species

What is the scala naturae?
A. a species of horse
B. the first theory of evolution
C. a sequential ladder of life, with humans at the top
D. another name for the theory of special creation

C. a sequential ladder of life, with humans at the top

An idea that could be traced back to Plato is that
A. hybrids showed that species could be changed with time.
B. variation is due to imperfections in copies of some perfect ideal form.
C. artificial selection of animals by humans proves that evolution can occur.
D. acquired characteristics could be passed from parents to offspring.
E. worldwide catastrophes caused extinction, followed by creation of new species.

B. variation is due to imperfections in copies of some perfect ideal form.

Linnaeus developed his classification system for organisms according to
A. a theory of descent by modification.
B. Darwin's theory of evolution.
C. Lamarck's theory of evolution.
D. a theory of special creation and fixity of species.

D. a theory of special creation and fixity of species.

Which naturalist wrote a 44-volume natural history on plants and animals, and suggested migration, environmental influences, isolation, and overcrowding might affect how organisms descend with modifications?
A. Darwin
B. Lamarck
C. Cuvier
D. Lyell
E. Leclerc

E. Leclerc

Erasmus Darwin, in his discussion of evolutionary possibilities, included all of the following EXCEPT
A. changes during the development of organisms.
B. comparative anatomy of plants and algae.
C. vestigial organs.
D. artificial selection in animal breeding.

B. comparative anatomy of plants and algae.

Lamarck's theory of evolution included the idea that
A. there is a natural force in all living things that pushes them toward perfection.
B. local catastrophes cause mass extinctions of species.
C. species are only produced through special creation.
D. species are fixed and unchanging over time.

A. there is a natural force in all living things that pushes them toward perfection.

Cutting off the tails of mice over several generations should cause the tails of their offspring to become shorter, according to the ideas of which of these scientists?
A. Darwin
B. Lamarck
C. Cuvier
D. Lyell

B. Lamarck

In his theory of natural selection, Darwin incorporated the premise that available resources were not sufficient for all members of a population to survive. Darwin adopted these ideas of competition and survival from
A. Erasmus Darwin.
B. Malthus.
C. Cuvier.
D. Lamarck.
E. Plato.

B. Malthus.

Darwin's geometric ratio of increase pertains specifically to
A. the inheritable variations found in a population.
B. the artificial selection of traits in plants or animals.
C. the inheritance of acquired traits.
D. the overproduction potential of a species.

D. the overproduction potential of a species.

Over many generations man has chosen certain desirable characteristics in dogs by allowing dogs possessing those characteristics to reproduce. In this way, 150 breeds of dogs, all in the same species, have descended from wolves. This process is referred to as
A. natural selection.
B. inheritance of acquired traits.
C. artificial selection.
D. convergent evolution.

C. artificial selection.

Who was the author of the book Principles of Geology? The book presented arguments to support a theory of geological change, proposing that the earth was subject to slow but continuous erosion and uplift?
A. Leclerc
B. Lamarck
C. Cuvier
D. Lyell

D. Lyell

Hutton's theory of geological change included all EXCEPT
A. catastrophic extinction of species.
B. slow cycles of erosion and uplift.
C. production of layers of sediment through slow deposition.
D. extreme geological change occurring over a long period of time.

A. catastrophic extinction of species.

Lamarck's ideas on evolution were adopted by some Russian scientists, including Michurin and Lysenko in Stalinist Russia. Their textbooks printed Lysenko's assertions that a wheat plant could be made cold-hardy by conditioning in cold storage, or that workmen who develop strong muscles would produce children who were stronger. Which of the major premises of evolution by natural selection was violated?
A. The organisms vary in traits.
B. Natural selection acts on variations that are already available in the population's gene pool.
C. More young are born than can survive. There will always be more demand than resources available.
D. Some individuals are better adapted to the environment.

B. Natural selection acts on variations that are already available in the population's gene pool.

Most of Darwin's observations about changes in species over time and in different environments took place in and near
A. North America.
B. Africa.
C. South America.
D. Asia.
E. Greenland

C. South America.

Natural selection was independently proposed as a means of evolution by Darwin and
A. Lyell.
B. Wallace.
C. LeClerc.
D. Lamarck.

B. Wallace.

Darwin's observation that there were Patagonian hares but no rabbits in South America would be considered ______________ evidence.
A. anatomical
B. biochemical
C. fossil
D. biogeographical

D. biogeographical

Darwin's opinion that living forms must be descended from extinct forms was based on ________ evidence.
A. anatomical
B. biochemical
C. fossil
D. biogeographical

C. fossil

A line of evidence NOT considered by Darwin in his development of the theory of natural selection is
A. comparative anatomy.
B. biogeography.
C. the fossil record.
D. comparative biochemistry.

D. comparative biochemistry.

The organisms on the Galápagos Islands that were most important to the development of Darwin's theory of natural selection were
A. rabbits and hares.
B. plants and fungi.
C. tortoises and finches.
D. snails and fish.
E. monkeys and armadillos.

C. tortoises and finches.

When he arrived at the Galápagos Islands, Darwin did not observe the amazing tool-using "woodpecker finch" that can modify twigs to pry out grubs. Because there are no true woodpeckers on the Galápagos Islands, this behavior allows this finch to exploit an untapped food source. However, not all members of this species exhibit this behavior, which is probably learned from watching other finches. Therefore,
A. young isolated at hatching will not know how to do this.
B. it is probably not "hardwired" in the brain as a behavior passed on genetically.
C. there must be a great advantage to reaching this food source for this learned behavior to be repeated by most descendants of each generation.
D. as an acquired characteristic, in a strict sense this is not part of the adaptive radiation of finches on the Galápagos.
E. All of the choices are correct.

E. All of the choices are correct.

A population must have ______ for natural selection to occur.
A. a stable environment
B. abundant resources
C. many individuals
D. inheritable variation

D. inheritable variation

Which of the following is/are true about natural selection?
A. It acts on genotypes rather than phenotypes.
B. It assures the survival of each fit individual.
C. On average, it favors the survival of more young with adaptive characteristics.
D. It always selects for more complex forms.
E. All of the choices are correct.

C. On average, it favors the survival of more young with adaptive characteristics.

Fossils like Archaeopteryx offer evidence linking
A. reptiles and mammals.
B. fish and amphibians.
C. birds and mammals.
D. birds and reptiles.
E. amphibians and reptiles.

D. birds and reptiles.

Transitional forms are seen in the fossil record that links all of these groups EXCEPT
A. birds and reptiles.
B. reptiles and amphibians.
C. fish and amphibians.
D. mammals and birds.
E. mammals and reptiles.

D. mammals and birds.

What evidence would be studied by a biogeographer?
A. plate tectonics
B. amount of genetic similarity among current populations
C. ocean currents and wind patterns
D. ranges and migration patterns of animals
E. All of the choices are correct.

E. All of the choices are correct.

Homologous structures such as the bones in wings, flippers, and arms would be studied in the field of
A. comparative anatomy.
B. biogeography.
C. the fossil record.
D. comparative embryology.
E. comparative biochemistry.

A. comparative anatomy.

All of the following are examples of natural selection EXCEPT
A. the distribution of dark and light colored peppered moths in Britain.
B. a rise in bacterial resistance to antibiotics.
C. the reduction in beak length of scarlet honeycreepers when they changed food sources.
D. the 150 breeds of dogs developed from ancestral wolves.
E. B and D are not examples of natural selection.

D. the 150 breeds of dogs developed from ancestral wolves.

Birds and insects both have wings, but we do not consider this similarity as evidence of relatedness because
A. bird wings function on different physics principles of lift.
B. insect wings are vestigial.
C. the wings are not homologous structures with a common ancestral origin.
D. they did not evolve in the same region or live at the same time period.
E. there is no fossil link between these groups.

C. the wings are not homologous structures with a common ancestral origin.

The post Darwinian view of the world included
A. the age of the Earth is billions of years old.
B. species are related by descent.
C. an interaction of random variations and environmental conditions produced environmental adaptation.
D. All of the choices are correct.
E. B and C only are correct.

D. All of the choices are correct.

When previous adaptations in a species are no longer useful in a changed environment,
A. selection of a different form occurs.
B. artificial selection is witnessed.
C. fitness is observed.
D. All of the choices are correct.

A. selection of a different form occurs.

Darwin observed that
A. members of a population vary in their functional, physical and behavioral characteristics.
B. there is a constant struggle for survival of organisms.
C. organisms in a normal population differ in reproductive success.
D. All of the choices are correct.
E. A and B only are correct.

D. All of the choices are correct.

Once exposed to an antibiotic drug, those bacteria that are resistant reproduce and pass the resistance onto subsequent generations. This is an example of Lamark's idea of the inheritance of acquired traits.
True False

False

Erasmus Darwin, Charles Darwin's grandfather, suggested the possibility of evolutionary descent in his writings.
True False

True

Analogous structures serve the same function, are similarly constructed and are inherited from a common ancestor.
True False

False

Marsupials are more numerous in Australia than South America because of less competition with placental mammals.
True False

True

The oldest mammals were large, dinosaur-like creatures that flourished over 600 million years ago.
True False

False

Alfred Wallace is considered the Father of Zoogeography because of linking geography with the study of animals.
True False

True

HIV and cancer cells are becoming more drug resistant over time.
True False

True

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

NEW! Voice Recording

Click the mic to start.

Create Set