Class system of France's 25 million inhabitants. 1st estate consisted of clergy and royalty; also owned 10% of land in France and were excused from taxes. 2nd estate were the descendants of people who had "fought in the middle ages" and exercised certain special manorial rights. They too were excused from some taxes and owned 25% of the land in France. The third estate was 98% of the population, consisting of the peasants. Received no legal rights, though a very small minority of them were practicing doctors and lawyers.
A legislative body in pre-revolutionary France made up of representatives of each of the three classes, or estates; it was called into session in 1789 for the first time since 1614.
Called because Louis XVI and his minister of finance were too weak to declare partial bankruptcy and needed approval to impose a tax on the general public.
However the preoccupation of deciding who was to be in the estates general to best represent the three estates caused enough delay for the lowest estate to plan their uprising and ultimately the overthrowing of the government.
The first revolutionary assembly; which was made up of mostly the third estate though some clergy and nobility were in it. It was in session from 1789-1791 primarily because delegates from the third estate refused to sign anything with members of other classes until they could sit and discuss in the same room together.
Divided once historic property in France into 83 equally sized properties, abolished guilds, unions and monopolies, applying the spirit of the enlightenment.
Tennis court oath
Members of the third estate got to the meeting to find themselves forbidden to enter Versailles, so they went to a nearby tennis court and vowed not to leave until they had formed the final draft of a new constitution
Declaration of the Rights of Man
"all men are innocent until proven guilty, all men are born and remain free and equal in rights, and every man is entitled to 'liberty, security, property, and resistance to oppression.'"
In 1789 throughout France peasants everywhere were revolting against lords by ransacking, murder, and theft. Liberal nobles voiced it in Versailles. Results include, special rights for the upper 2% of citizens such as hunting rights, exclusive fees, and peasant serfdom were abolished, and taxing was no longer on the 3rd estate exclusively.
Reluctantly accepted by Louis XVI in July of 1790 after the nobility was dismissed by the National Assembly as a legitimate political order.
The king still held ultimate power but all lawmaking abilities now resided with the National Assembly, which was elected by the wealthiest half of males in France.
Women also gained more rights such as the right to seek divorce, inherit and own property, and seek financial support from the father of her illegitimate child.
Political group of radical, rich republicans in the Legislative Assembly starting in 1791. They had been meeting at clubs in Paris since the beginning of the revolution to discuss their political views, which were burning desires for a change in government in France.
Result of the Jacobins being split up into two halves, but the Girondists were more moderate. They thought the king was guilty of corruption, but did not want to execute him. They were from the small towns mainly both outside Paris and in the Southwest of France, and wanted a constitutional monarchy.
Led by Robespierre and and Jaques Danton. Another half of the former Jacobins, the Mountain was more radical than the Girondists. (They were called the mountain because they sat on the highest seats in the Assembly Hall.) Though both the Mountain and the Girondists vied for power pretty evenly, the Mountain narrowly got its way and King Louis XVI was executed on January 21st, 1793.
However, though the King was done with, both groups wanted to continue their "war against tyranny."
Literally "without breeches," they were another radical political party that consisted of the working poor. They demanded their daily bread, and got the Mountain onboard with them. Together, they stormed the convention and had Girondists arrested for treason, therefore giving all the power to the Mountain.
The second part of the French Revolution, from 1792-1795 where radicalism escalated. During this Louis was imprisoned, the September Massacres happened, and France was declared a Republic.
Reign of Terror (aka the Terror)
Period from 1793-1794. This was the real enforcement of the revolution as the Committee of Public Safety had thousands executed for treason against France (enemies of the revolution)
The discouragement of Christian beliefs by French revolutionaries in order to bring the revolution into all aspects of daily life and therefore eliminate the old government.
A reaction to the Terror, which resulted in the leader of the Terror, Robespierre being executed and loosened economic reactions. The middle-class also reasserted their authority from the peasantry.
Set of laws in 1804 that returned equal rights before the law to all men from 1789. Also returned security of wealth and property.
The span of Napoleon's rule. This included most of Europe with the exception of Great Britain and Russia. The first part was areas around France, the second was outward colonies that he placed others on the throne at, and the third consisted of ally countries such as Austria, Prussia and Russia
Blockade imposed by Napoleon blocking Britain from continental Europe, cutting them off from trade and communication and therefore damaging their economy.