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The British East India Company

What British commercial institution ruled India for much of the 18th century?

Brazil

Which of the following regions was not part of the Spanish colonial empire?

Calcutta

The British East India Company through negotiation with local Mughal princes gained a station at?

The Dutch and the British improved the design of oceanic vessels, producing faster ships than their Catholic rivals.

Why did the initiative in early conquest and exploration pass to northern European nations in the later 16th century?

The use of colonially produced sugarspread widely in Europe, particularly in countries with relatively cold climates.

Which of the following represents an impact on western Europe from the development of colonies?

Spain's internal economy and banking system were not sufficient to accommodate the bullion from the new world and lacked significant manufacturing capability.

Which of the following statements best accounts for the Spanish failure to hold a position of dominance in world trade?

In previous eras, most attention was given to the development of regional economies and cultural zones, rather than a global network.

How was the global trade network of the 15th century different from that of previous eras?

Lateen sails

Which of the following was NOT a technological improvement introduced during the 15th century in the West?

Portugal

The initiative for Western exploration and conquest came from the kingdom of?

Vasco da Gama

The captain of the first Portuguese fleet to reach India was?

Dutch and British exploration owed much to private initiative of merchant groups and the formation of chartered trading companies.

In what way were the early Dutch and British exploration and trade projects different from those of the Iberian nations?

The Indian Ocean

Which of the following areas of trade was NOT dominated by the West after the establishment of a global trading network in the 17th century?

Nagasaki

Despite Japan's official policy of isolation, the Dutch were able to gain special access to the port of?

China was able, thanks to the existence of its coastal navy, to prevent the establishment of European ports.

Which of the following statements concerning the relationship between Asian civilizations and the world commercial network of the 16th and 17th centuries is NOT accurate?

Seven Years' War

Which of the following statements concerning the relationship between Asian civilizations and the world commercial network of the 16th and 17th centuries is NOT accurate?

What was once an agricultural society had become a predominantly manufacturing economy.

In characterizing the period from 1450 to 1750 in the West, which of the following statements is NOT accurate?

Renaissance, Protestant Reformation, absolute monarchy, Enlightenment.

Which of the following lists the major developments of Western civilization in proper sequence?

Humanists focused on humankind as the center of intellectual and artistic endeavor.

Which of the following statements concerning Italian humanism is most accurate?

French and Spanish monarchs invaded the peninsula, cutting down on political independence.

Which of the following accounts in part for the decline of the Italian Renaissance circa 1500?

Northern humanists focused more on religion than their Italian counterparts.

What was one of the primary differences between the Northern and Italian Renaissances?

Martin Luther

Who is generally credited with initiating the Protestant Reformation in 1517?

German princes who turned Protestant could increase their independence from the emperor, seize church lands, and control the church in their territories.

Which of the following statements most accurately describes the reason Luther picked up widespread support among the German elite?

Predestination

The theological foundation of Jean Calvin's Protestantism was?

granted tolerance to Protestants and helped end the French civil wars of religion.

The Edict of Nantes, issued in France in 1598?

a limited acceptance of the idea of religious pluralism.

The religious wars that followed the Protestant Reformation led generally to?

Significant reduction in prices encouraging consumer spending

Which of the following was NOT typical of the commercial revolution of the 16th century?

Proletariat

Inflation and commercialization in the West produced a group of people without access to producing property called the?

Louis XIV of France.

The monarch most associated with absolute monarchy was?

Enlightenment

The aftermath of the Scientific Revolution spilled over into a new intellectual movement in the 18th century called the?

that governments avoid regulation in favor of the operation of individual initiative and market forces.

Adam Smith's economic theory advocated?

Asian

Much of the territory added to the Russian empire during the 17th and 18th centuries was?

Duchy of Moscow

What political center served as the focal point for the Russian liberation from the Mongols?

Russia had become a more purely agricultural economy, dependent on peasant labor.

What was the state of the Russian economy immediately after the expulsion of the Mongols in the 15th century?

The Byzantine Empire

What government did Ivan the Great claim to have succeeded as the "third Rome"?

wished to confirm tsarist autocracy by attacking the authority of boyars.

Ivan IV, called Ivan the Terrible?

Independent central Asia, the source of nomadic cultures and invasion forces, was eliminated.

What was the impact of early Russian expansion on central Asia?

Time of Troubles

Following the death of Ivan IV, Russian boyars attempted to limit tsarist autocracy and gain governing rights for themselves during the?

Old Believers

Russians who refused to accept tsarist reforms of the Orthodox church and who were exiled to Siberia for their conservatism were called?

Peter's wars with the Ottoman Empire and Sweden indicated a westward shift in Russian expansion.

In what way did Peter the Great shift the foreign policy interests of Russia?

To avoid the need of importing military armaments.

What was the purpose of Peter the Great's policy of economic development?

Westernization was limited to the elite.

What was the limitation of Peter the Great's policies of cultural Westernization?

Hungary

All of the following countries participated in the successive partitions of Poland EXCEPT?

Russia saw a progressive intensification of serfdom while the West was relaxing this institution in favor of other labor systems.

What was one of the primary differences between the social organization of the West and Russia in the 17th and 18th centuries?

Lack of technological improvement.

What was one of the primary limitations on the expansion of the agricultural economy?

The development of empire.

Eastern Europe shared with Russia all of the following characteristics EXCEPT?

The Portuguese experience in Africa and their involvement in slave trading were extended to the Americas.

How was the commercial experience of the Portuguese extended to the Americas?

Encomiendas

The grants of Indians to individual Spaniards as a labor system were called?

Taino

What group of Indians supplied agricultural labor for the Spaniards in the Caribbean?

American cities were laid out in a grid plan.

How did Caribbean cities differ from those of Europe?

Hernan Cortes

The man responsible for the conquest of the Aztec empire in Mexico was?

Epidemic diseases.

What accounted for the majority of the population loss suffered by Native Americans after the European arrival?

mita

The colonial governments replaced the labor of the encomienda with Indian labor extracted through local officials. Such forced labor was called the?

Plantation crops like sugar and later cacao were exported to Europe in sufficient quantities to exceed the value of bullion exports.

Which of the following statements concerning the agricultural system of Spanish America is NOT accurate?

Galleons

The Spanish convoy system that controlled trade with the Americas was made possible by the development of?

Audiencias

The vice royalties of New Spain and Peru were divided into 10 judicial divisions controlled by superior courts, or?

The sense of independence from the state.

The Catholic church introduced all of the following to American life EXCEPT?

Unlike the Spanish empire that was almost exclusively American, the Portuguese empire included colonies and outposts in Asia and Africa as well as Brazil.

What was the primary difference between the Spanish and Portuguese empires?

Racial origins

What was the basis for the social hierarchy that developed in the Americas?

The frontiers of Spanish America became fixed.

Which of the following was NOT an impact of the Bourbon reforms on colonial economy?

The American colonies of Spain and Portugal were experiencing considerable growth in population and productive capacity.

Which of the following statements most accurately describes the state of the Portuguese and Spanish American colonies by the middle of the 18th century?

The collapse of the Christian kingdom in Ethiopia in the face of Muslim advance.

Which of the following was NOT considered a factor in the development of large kingdoms in Africa?

Most of the forts were established with the agreement or license of local rulers.

Which of the following statements concerning the early Portuguese trade forts is most accurate?

Kongo

Which of the African kingdoms was most successfully converted to Christianity by Portuguese missionaries?

Widespread European colonization

Following the model established by the Portuguese, which of the following was NOT one of the principal patterns of European contact with Africa?

The development of sugar plantations on the Atlantic island of Madeira.

What development led to an intensification of the Portuguese involvement in the African slave trade?

18th

In what century did the Atlantic slave trade reach its zenith in terms of numbers of Africans exported?

Brazil

What region in the Americas received more slaves than any other between 1550 and 1850?

The Atlantic slave trade drew slaves from across the African continent and its concentration shifted from Senegambia to central and western Africa over time.

Which of the following statements concerning the shape of the commerce in African slaves is most accurate?

The trans-Saharan slave trade concentrated on women, but the Atlantic slave trade concentrated on young men.

In what way did the trans-Saharan slave trade differ from that of the Atlantic slave trade?

The slave trade was little more profitable than most business activities of the age and was not a major source for the Industrial Revolution of Europe.

How did the profitability of the slave trade compare to that of other contemporary business ventures?

In many African societies, the control of slaves was one of the few ways in which individuals or lineages could increase their wealth and status.

Which of the following statements concerning slavery on the continent of Africa before the arrival of the Europeans is most accurate?

Slaves were traded for firearms that allowed expanding states to overpower their neighbors, resulting in more slaves.

In what way did the European slave trade enable centralizing states to expand more rapidly?

The Dutch East India Company

In 1652 what group established a colony at the Cape of Good Hope?

The British colonies depended less on imported Africans because of the positive rate of growth among the slaves.

How were the British colonies of the southern Atlantic coast of North America different from the Latin American colonies?

While it is true that legitimate products began to replace slaves in the European commerce with Africa, it is difficult to demonstrate a link between economic self-interest and the abolition of the slave trade.

Which of the following statements concerning the ending of the slave trade is most accurate?

The Seljuk Turks

Prior to the Mongol invasions of their empire, the Abbasid dynasty was dominated by?

Mehmed 2nd

Following the invasions of Timur, the Ottoman Empire was restored under?

slave troops of the Ottomans forcibly conscripted as adolescents from conquered territories.

The Janissaries were?

Their control of artillery and firearms gave them prominence over the aristocratic Turkish cavalry.

What permitted the Janissaries to gain a position of prominence in the Ottoman Empire?

Like their counterparts in medieval European towns, the artisans were organized into guilds.

In what way were the artisans of Constantinople similar to their counterparts in the West?

The Ottoman dynasty lasted for over 600 years-a feat matched by no other ruling family.

How did the Ottoman dynasty compare to other ruling families?

Portugal

What European nation first threatened the Ottoman monopoly of trade with east Africa and India?

The Ottomans were at a much greater disadvantage as a result of the more potent threat from the West.

Which of the following represents a difference between the declines of the Abbasids and the Ottomans?

Red Heads

Followers of the Safavids' followers were called?

The Safavids were dealt a devastating defeat that checked the westward advance of Shi'ism and decimated the ranks of the Turkic warriors who had built the Safavid empire.

Why was the battle of Chaldiran in 1514 so important?

The Ottoman empire benefited in the short run from non-Muslim traders (Christians and Jews) who had extensive contacts with overseas empires that the Safavid empire lacked.

How did the Savafid economy compare to that of the Ottomans?

Panipat

The first Mughal emperor successfully defeated the Muslim ruler of the Lodi dynasty in 1526 at the battle of?

He reformed the ineffective Lodi bureaucracy to create a streamlined administration.

Which of the following descriptions of the accomplishments of Babur is NOT accurate?

It attempted to blend elements of the many faiths with which he was familiar as a means of reconciling Hindus and Muslims.

What was the critical feature of Akbar's new religion, the Din-i-Ilahi?

The empire was far larger than earlier, but control and state revenues passed increasingly to regional lords who gave little more than tribute payments to the emperors.

What was the state of the Mughal empire following Aurangzeb's death in 1707?

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