Psych Ch 2

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Regarding neurons, which of the following is true?

They transmit messages in the form of electrical impulses

The fundamental building block of the nervous system is the

neuron

The parts of a neuron are the soma, the axon, the dendrites, and the

terminal buttons

The component of a neuron that performs the metabolic functions of the cell is the

soma

Regarding a neuron's soma, all of the following are true EXCEPT:

The soma contains terminal buttons

Another name for soma is

cell body

In a neuron, the ______ conducts information to other neurons, and the ____ receives signals from other neurons.

axon; dendrite

Which of the following best describes a synapse?

A tiny gap that separates one neuron from another

What is the job of a dendrite?

To receive signals from other neurons

Which part of a neuron may range in size from a few thousandths of an inch to several feet long?

axon

Which of the following is the function of the soma?

controlling metabolic processes

In a neuron, ______ is to sending as _____ is to receiving.

axon, dendrite

The knoblike swellings at the ends of axons are called

terminal buttons

Neurotransmitters are stored in which part of the neuron?

The terminal buttons

The small fluid-filled gap through which neural impulses are carried is called the

synapse

What is the job of a synapse?

To provide a place where neurons can communicate with one another

There are ____ types of neurons in the human nervous system, and these are called ______.

3; afferent, efferent, and associative cells

What is the most common type of neuron in the nervous system?

interneuron

In neurons, efferent is to ____ as afferent is to ______.

motor; sensory

What is true about afferent neurons?

They transmit information about the outside world to the spinal cord and brain

Which type of neuron conveys messages from your brain and spinal cord to your muscles in order to control your body's movements?

motor

In math class, Aaron is planning his next birthday party and thinking about whom to invite. Which neurons in his brain are involved in the planning and thinking?

Interneurons

Associative neuron is another name for

interneuron

Besides the neuron, the other main type of cell in the nervous system is the

glial cell

During his first three years of life, Jason has developed many motor skills, such as crawling, walking, and running. In terms of brain function, Jason's motor development is the result of which process?

myelination

The term white matter refers to

myelinated axons

Glands receive messages from which type of neurons?

motor

The fatty layer of cells that is wrapped around many axons is called the

myelin sheath

The word glial is derived from the greek word for

glue

Glial cells do all of the following EXCEPT

produce neurotransmitters

Gaps in myelin that create noninsulated areas along an axon are called

nodes of Ranvier

Thirty-nine-year-old Marilyn has a disease that has slowed down the transmission of her nerve impulses. This slowing down is a result of the loss of myelin. What disease does Marilyn have?

Multiple Sclerosis

Approximately how much does the human brain weigh?

3 pounds

Ions are

either positively or negatively charged

The resting potential of a neuron is the result of a

high concentration of sodium ions outside the cell

What is the approximate resting potential of a neuron?

-70 mV

When a neuron is at rest,

it is not being sufficiently stimulated

The process by which stimulation causes a neuron's sodium gate to open and allows positively charged molecules to enter, thereby lessening the negative charge of the neuron is called

depolarization

Depolarization occurs when the neuron becomes

less negative due to influx of sodium ions

Another term for an action potential is

neural impulse

The abrupt shift in the charge of a neuron from a negative to a positive charge is known as

an action potential

Which of the following is true of action potentials?

The thicker the axon, the faster they travel

Which of the following occurs during the refractory period?

The neuron is temporarily incapable of firing

Which of the following statements is true about neurotransmitters?

Neurotransmitters can have inhibitory effects, excitatory effects or both

Prolonged neurotransmitter activity is prevented by all of the following functions except

release of excitatory neurotransmitters

Which term best describes the nature of reuptake

recycle

in the treatment of schizophrenia, antipsychotic drugs serve as _______ that block receptor sites for _______

antagonists: dopamine

Which disorder is often characterized by hallucinations and delusions?

schizophrenia

Regarding neurotransmitters, ______ is to blocking as _____ is to enhancing.

antagonist: agonist

Psychologists believe that irregularities in the transmission of which neurotransmitter may help explain schizophrenia?

dopamine

Which neurotransmitter is most involved in the neural pathways in the brain that regulate pleasure states?

dopamine

Which of the following happens at the synapse?

Neurotransmitters go across it

Teresa was just diagnosed with Parkinson's disease. During an online chat, she gleaned a lot of information about the disease, but not all of it was accurate. One correct fact that she learned is that

certain cells in her brain are dying

Loss of dopamine-producing neurons in the brain can result in

Parkinson's disease

Agonists may do which of the following?

Prevent the reuptake of neurotransmitters

Which of the following is an excitatory neurotransmitter that helps keep the central nervous system aroused?

Glutamate

Jane was adminstered a drug that acts as an antagonist to dopamine. Jane is likely suffering from

schizophrenia

Cocaine and amphetamines increase the availability of

dopamine

Which of the following acts as an antagonist?

Curare

Which of the following neurotransmitters prevents neurons from overly exciting their neighbors?

GABA

Alcohol increases the sensitivity of receptor sites for

GABA

Anxiety disorders may be due to reduced levels of

GABA

The inhibitory neurotransmitter that helps regulate moods, produces feelings of satiation after eating and induces sleepiness is

serotonin

Sixteen-year-old Anton takes Prozac for his depression. Chemically speaking, Prozac works for Anton by increasing the availability of which neurotransmitter in his brain?

serotonin

The brain naturally produces neurotransmitters that are "chemical cousins" of narcotic drugs. They are called

endorphins

Sharon is a long-distance runner. After a certain point in her workout she beings to feel a natural high instead of pain. This feeling is a result of chemicals in her brain called

endorphins

Which nervous system would send information about the wavelengths of the colors of the rainbow to the brain?

somatic

The brain and spinal cord make up the

central nervous system

Which nervous system connects the spinal cord and brain with the sensory organs and muscles?

The somatic

The peripheral nervous system consists of

the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system

Which of the following statements about spinal reflexes is true?

They bypass the brain

The sympathetic nervous system is to ______ as the parasympathetic nervous system is to ______

more energy: less energy

On a camping trip, Eleni accidentally steps on a hot coal from the campfire. Upon touching the coal, her foot reflexively withdraws from the coal. What is the sequence of response in Eleni's neurons?

sensory neuron-interneuron - motor neuron

Regarding the autonomic nervous system, which of the following is true?

it regulates the heartbeat, respiration, and digestion

Your heartbeat, digestion and pupil dilation are _____ processes regulated by the ______ nervous system

involuntary; autonomic

Which of the following situations involves the type of physical functioning primarily influenced by the parasympathetic nervous system?

Betty is doing meditation and positive visualization

What are the two branches of the autonomic nervous system?

the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems

The sympathetic nervous system does all of the following except

promote digestion

Your parasympathetic nervous system is involved in which of the following?

stimulating your digestive activity

Which part of the brain is matched up correctly with one of its structures?

The forebrain contains the hypothalamus

Which of the following is part of the midbrain?

The reticular formation

Which of the following functions is controlled by the medulla?

sneezing

Trina has recently been having trouble staying awake throughout the day. Which area of Trina's brain is related to her difficulty?

Pons

Which part of the brain controls balance and coordination?

Cerebellum

The fact that alcohol often causes problems with balance and coordination suggests that it may have an effect on the

cerebellum

Brianna, a new mother, is able to sleep through the noise of her husband watching a boxing match on TV. However, as soon as the baby wakes up and gives a little cry, Brianna wakes up. The part of the brain that filters out the TV noise but allows her to hear the baby's cry, even in her sleep, is the

reticular formation

As a result of brain damage, an animal is permanently asleep. This suggests damage to what part of the animals brain?

reticular formation

The forebrain contains all of the following structures EXCEPT the

cerebellum

Which structure of the forebrain plays a key role in regulating voluntary movement such as walking?

basal ganglia

Which brain structure is best described as a "relay station"?

thalamus

All of the following senses are routed through the thalamus EXCEPT

smell

When brain structure regulates such bodily functions as thirst and hunger, fluid concentrations, and body temperature?

hypothalamus

Damage to which brain structure might result in excessive eating?

hypothalamus

Regarding the limbic system, which of the following statements is true?

The limbic system plays a role in emotional processing and memory

The pons is

located in the hindbrain

If you were to look at the structures in the forebrain, you would find that the hippocampus is shaped like a

seahorse

Regarding the midbrain, which of the following statements is true?

The midbrain helps to keep the eyes focused when the head moves

After a motorcycle accident in which she wasn't wearing a helmet, Vanessa has difficulty responding emotionally to unpleasant stimuli. Vanessa most likely experienced damage to which brain structure?

Amygdala

The brain structure that is located just behind the amygdala and plays an important role in the formation of memories is the

hippocampus

The cerebral cortex accounts for approximately what percentage of the brains total mass?

80%

The thin, outer layer of the cerebrum is called the

cerebral cortex

Which brain structure connects the two cerebral hemispheres?

The corpus callosum

In the cerebral cortex, ______ is to vision as _______ is to hearing.

occipital; temporal

Which lobe processes information related to touch and body movement?

Parietal

Damage to which portion of the cerebral cortex would most likely interfere with a person's hearing?

temporal

After a car accident, Brandon lost some of his visual abilities. Which portion of Brandon's cerebral cortex was probably damaged in the accident?

occipital

Which lobe processes somatosensory information?

Parietal

Following brain damage, Takami cannot feel stimulation of her arms. She probably suffered damage to which portion of the brain?

Parietal lobe

Stimulation of which part of the cerebral cortex would result in the experience of sensation from a body part?

Parietal lobe

Which lobe is best described as the "executive center" of the brain?

Frontal

Which of the following statements is true about the frontal cortex?

The frontal lobes are the ones best described as containing "you"

Which part of the forebrain can be likened to the central processing unit of a computer?

the frontal lobe

The majority of the cortex is made up of the

association areas

Which part of the brain is responsible for piecing together sensory input to form meaningful perceptions of the world?

The association areas

Sonal is at a brain research center, participating in a study. She is hooked up to a machine that measures electrical activity in her brain through the use of electrodes attached to her scalp. Which technique is the researcher using with Sonal?

electroencephalography

Which technique takes snapshots of the brain in action

Functional magnetic resonance imagery

A technique that uses measurement of radioactive isotopes to evaluate the activity of the brain is

positron emission tomography

To see whether Jay's head aches were caused by a tumor, Dr.Ariton passed an X-ray beam through Jay's head from different angles to produce a three-dimensional image. Dr. Ariton was using which imaging technique?

Computerized tomography

What technique has helped scientists understand why people cannot tickle temselves?

Functional MRI

Scientists were able to discover how individual neurons in the visual cortex respond to particular types of visual stimuli using which experimental method?

Electrical recording

A lesion is

damage in the tissue of the brain

In which type of experimental brain study technique does the investigator pass a mild electric current through certain parts of the brain in order to determine which parts are involved in controlling particular behaviors?

Electrical stimulation

Destroying a section of brain tissue to determine its effects on function is called

lesioning

Typically, the right hemisphere would play a dominant role in which of the following functions?

face recognition

The division of functions between the right and left hemispheres of the brain is termed

lateralization

Regarding language dominance and handedness, which of the following statements is true?

About 15 percent of left-handed people show a pattern of mixed dominance.

For most people, Broca's area is located in the ______ lobe, and Wernicke's area is located in the ________ lobe.

left frontal; left temporal

Damage to Broca's area or Wernicke's area can lead to

aphasia

As a result of the car accident, two friends sustained a brain injury. Patrick had significant damage in his Broca's area, whereas Angelo had significant damage in his Wernicke's area. Consequently, Patrick was unable to ________, and Angelo was unable to ________.

speak; understand speech

Recent research suggest that hand preference begins to develop

before birth

Among five sets of identical twins, how many pairs are expected to share the same hand preference?

four pairs

Which of the following statements is true about handedness?

About 95% of fetuses suck their right thumbs and about 95% of people are right-handed

Split-brain patients are the result of an operation that severs the

corpus callosum

Jackson had an operation in which his corpus callosum was severed. It is most likely that Jackson had which disease?

epilepsy

Inasplit-brainresearchstudy,whatwillhappenwhenapencilispresentedinthepatient'svisualfield?

The patient will be able to say "pencil" when the pencil is presented to the right visual field, but not
when it is presented to the left visual field.

Phineas Gage showed sever personality changes following an accident that damaged his

prefromtal cortex

In the case of Phineas Gage discussed in the text, what type of brain injury did Gage experience?

a laceration

The brain's ability to adapt and reorganize itself following trauma or surgical alteration is termed

plasticity

John was playing football and received a blow to the head when he was tackled. John's injury is called a

concussion

The endocrine system includes which parts of the body

glands

Diabetes results from irregularities in the functioning of the hormone that regulates the concentrations of glucose in the blood. That hormone is

insulin

Disturbances in the sleep-wake cycles may be due to the hormone _____, which is secreted by the _____ gland

melatonin; pineal

Which of the following terms best captures the meaning of homeostasis?

balance

Releasing factors are secreted b the

hypothalamus

Which hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete other hormones that promote muscle development?

ACTH

Winnie has a disease in which her pancreas produces too little insulin. What is Winnie's disease?

Diabetes

The hormone ____ is to the pituitary gland as the hormone ____ is to the pancreas.

oxytocin; insulin

Which gland is best described as the "master gland"?

the pituitary

Milly just found out that she is pregnant. In order to maintain the pregnancy, her ovaries will need to produce which hormone?

progesterone

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