Bilingual Education Act (Title V11)
Compensatory program to support education programs, train teachers, aides, develop and disseminate instructional materials and encourage parental involvement in bilingual/ESL education. In 1970 the Office of Civil Rights (OCR) informed school districts with more than 5% national origin-minority students that they must provide some kind of special language instruction for LEP students. Te OCR also prohibited the assignment of students to classes for the handicapped on the basis of English language skills: prohibited placing students in vocational tracks instead of teaching them English and mandated that administrators communicate with parents in a language that they can understand.
Bilingual language User
A person who is skilled to some degree in two languages. This might be someone who speaks two languages (e.g.English and Spanish)
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency. CALP takes much longer than BICS to develop; usually about 5-7 years. CALP skills are those that are necessary for literacy obtainment and academic success. CALP enables students to have academic, analytical conversation and to independently acquire factual information. CALP is used to use information acquired to find relationship, make inferences, and draw conclusions.
Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA)
Instructional approach that provides explicit teaching of learning strategies within academic subject areas. Strategies are divided into three major categories: (1) Metacognitive (planning, self-monitoring,classifying, etc.);(2) Cognitive (note taking, summarizing, making inferences, self reflection, etc.) and (3) Social-affective (asking questions, cooperative learning, peer tutoring,etc.).
Teaching approach where negotiation for meaning is critical. The teacher becomes a facilitator. Collaborative learning and peer interaction is important. Students and teacher select and organize curriculum contents.