surface water and ground water carry dissolved minerals into lakes and seas where they crystallize on the bottom.
formed from preexisting rock subjected to heat and pressure (rock is solid, but minerals break down, form, change shape)
Evaporating Salt Water
when a body of salt water evaporates, certain minerals are left behind.
Hot Water Solutions
groundwater works its way down and is heated by magma; reacts with minerals to form a liquid; metals and other elements then crystallize to form new minerals.
as magma moves upward, it can form teardrop shapes (Topaz and Tourmaline)
magma that stops moving before it reaches the surface and cools into mineral crystals
The extraction of mineral and energy resources near Earth's surface by first removing the soil, subsoil, and overlying rock strata.
a type of mining in which the of digging tunnels or shafts into the earth is used to reach buried ore deposits
the conversion of wasteland into land suitable for use of habitation or cultivation
have shiny surfaces, don't let light pass through them, are good conductors of heat and electricity, can be processed into strong metals that don't rust, and some can be pounded or pressed into various shapes or stretched thinly.
Minerals that have a dull surface, lets light pass through and is a good insulator of electricity.
highly valued for their beauty and rarity rather than their usefulness.