The dynasty that came after the Umayyads. Devoted their energy to trade, scholorship, and the art
third of the Islamic Caliphates of the Islamic Empire. The rulers who built their capital in Baghdad after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphs. In started in 750 CE. It flourished for two centuries, but slowly went into decline with the rise to power of the Turkish army it had created, the Mamluks. In the 13th century the Mongols displaced them
Original inhabitants of Australia
Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the Great, and the author of works on logic, metaphysics, ethics, natural sciences, politics, and poetics, he profoundly influenced Western thought. In his philosophical system, which led him to criticize what he saw as Plato's metaphysical excesses, theory follows empirical observation and logic, based on the syllogism, is the essential method of rational inquiry.
Indo-European speaking nomads who entered India from the Central Asian steppes between 1500 and 1000 BC and greatly affected Indian society.
grandson of Chandragupta Maurya; completed conquests of Indian subcontinent; converted to Buddhism and sponsored spread of new religion throughout his empire
The first empreror of Rome, the adopted son of Julius Caesar, help Rome come into Pax Romana, or the Age of Roman Peace
(1200-1521) 1300, they settled in the valley of Mexico. Grew corn. Engaged in frequent warfare to conquer others of the region. Worshipped many gods (polytheistic). Believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky. Practiced human sacrifices and those sacrificed were captured warriors from other tribes and those who volunteered for the honor.
A major African language family. Collective name of a large group of sub-Saharan African languages and of the peoples speaking these languages. Famous for migrations throughout central and southern Africa.
the highest of the four varnas: the priestly or sacerdotal category
The French dynasty of rulers descended from Charlemagne.
In 264 and 202 B.C.E., Rome fought two protracted and bloody wars against Carthaginians. , These people were descendants of Phoenicians from Lebanon and settled in present-day Tunisia. They dominated the commerce of the western Mediterranean. Hannibal. Middle Republic
King of the Franks (r. 768-814); emperor (r. 800-814). Through a series of military conquests he established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. Illiterate, though started an intellectual revival
Chinese philosopher, administrator, and moralist. His social and moral teachings, collected in the Analects , tried to replace former religious observances
Roman emperor (r. 312-337). After reuniting the Roman Empire, he moved the capital to Constantinople and made Christianity a favored religion
A Muslim leader of Ghur who defeated Hindu armies made Delhi, the third largest city of India, his capital
big on warfare; pressured by Huns to invade Western Roman Empire; combined their culture with Roman culture to form new culture - accepted Christianity
Long lasting Chinese Dynasty coming after Qin; Buddhism spread through silk routes (which significantly grew) in this period; Civil Service Exams
people enslaved in Egypt who eventually became the community known as Israel; also known as Jews; Moses was their leader
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor who had little control over the hundreds of princes who elected him. It lasted from 962 to 1806.
the biological species to which modern human beings belong
People who specialize in studying the grammar, history, poetry, and rhetoric. Taught life should be meaningful. Displayed a critical approach to learning.
Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan.
A Native American people who built a notable civilization in western South America in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The center of their empire was in present-day Peru. Francisco Pizarro of Spain conquered the empire.
Migrants throughout Europe and West Asia who brought with them their language(s), horses and warlike culture
Religious people who do not believe in animal sacrifce or injuring any creature including insects and plants
Jesus of Nazareth
a teacher and prophet born in bethlehem and active in nazareth; his life and sermons form the basis for christianity
Roman general and dictator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic
early civilization that occupied the western Asia minor and were responsible for the first coinage of money
Musa title for king, Mansa musa most well known king, traded gold and salt with morocco and egypt, muslim, declined after 1360 over who should rule, weak oppresive kings and invasions
Ruler of Mali (r. 1312-1337). His pilgrimage through Egypt to Mecca in 1324-1325 established the empire's reputation for wealth in the Mediterranean world, gave riches away
Venetian merchant and traveler. His accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade
The first state to unify most of the Indian subcontinent. It was founded by Chandragupta Maurya in 324 B.C.E. and survived until 184 B.C.E. From its capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley it grew wealthy from taxes
a Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as its spectacular art, monumental architecture, and sophisticated mathematical and astronomical systems. Initially established during the Preclassic period and continued until the arrival of the Spanish.
Inhabitants of the land "between the rivers." Had rich soil from the over flow of the two bordering rivers.
A people of this name is mentioned as early as the records of the Tang Empire, living as nomads in northern Eurasia. After 1206 they established an enormous empire under Genghis Khan, linking western and eastern Eurasia
founder of islam; messenger of Allah
The central administration of the Roman Catholic Church, of which the pope is the head
Paul of Tarsus
A Jew from Asia Minor that played the most influential role in the spread of Christianity. Paul never met Jesus but he had a vision one day of speaking to him. Executed because spreading of Christianity was a threat to the government
seafaring civilization located on the shores of the eastern Mediterranean; established colonies throughout the Mediterranean; started greek alphabet
one of Socrates' students; was considered by many to be the greatest philosopher of western civilization. Plato explained his ideas about government in a work entitled The Republic. In his ideal state, the people were divided into three different groups.
Independent Korean kingdom in the southeast part of the peninsula defeated Koguryo with the help of their chinese Tang allies; sumbitted as a vassal of the Tang emperor and agreed to tribute payment; united Korea
This group of Hellenistic philosophers questioned any assumptions and had a goal of achieving peace of mind
philosopher who believed in an absolute right or wrong; asked students pointed questions to make them use their reason, later became Socratic method
St. Thomas Aquinas
developed five proofs for the existence of God
Hellenistic group of philosophers; emphasized inner moral independence cultivated by strict discipline of the body and personal bravery
a mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life
Empire unifying China and part of Central Asia, The Tang capital, Chang'an. Confucian ruler. Maintained empire through a system of roads with horses, etc. Equitable distribution of agricultural land kept land out of the hands of wealthy elite. Government jobs in extensive bureaucracy were merit based, determined through a series of civil service examination. Military conquests included Manchuria, Tibet, Korea and the northern part of Vietnam
Central Asian nomads that pressured Han China. Set up empires throughout Eurasia. Organized as tribes that constantly fought each other. Most converted to Islam. Nobility was hereditary but could be lost through incompetence
Chinese admiral during the Ming Dynasty, he led 7 great voyages that spread China's fame throughout Asia
nomads who terrorized the border and were defeated by Wudi. Lived in the steppes or grasslands north of China. Were the biggest threat to security during Qin dynasty. prompted the building of the Great Wall