relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China
An international agreement, drafted in 1968, not to aid nonnuclear nations in acquiring nuclear weapons; it was not signed by France, China, and other nations actively seeking to build these weapons.
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
French General who Led the French resistance. Organized the Free French military forces that battled the Nazis until France was liberated in 1944.
In 1968, Czechoslovakia, under Alexander Dubcek, began a program of reform. Dubcek promised civil liberties, democratic political reforms, and a more independent political system. The Soviet Union invaded the country and put down the short-lived period of freedom.
the first treaty between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics resulting from the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
On 11 February 1981, Jaruzelski was elected to be the Prime Minister of Poland, and became the First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers Party on October 18 the same year. He established martial law was in an attempt to suppress the Solidarity movement.
a militant organization of Irish nationalists who used terrorism and guerilla warfare in an effort to drive British forces from Northern Ireland and achieve a united independent Ireland
Polish trade union created in 1980 to protest working conditions and political repression. It began the nationalist opposition to communist rule that led in 1989 to the fall of communism in eastern Europe.
European Economic Community (EEC)
The regional trade and economic organization established in Western Europe by the Treaty of Rome in 1958; also known as the Common Market.
Seized power from Nikita Khrushchev and became leader of the Soviet Communist party in 1964. Ordered forces in to Afghanistan and Czechoslovakia.
Russian writer expelled from Russia for describing the horrors of labor camps
German states who as chancellor of West Germany worked to reduce tensions with eastern Europe (1913-1992)
United States diplomat who served under President Nixon and President Ford (born in 1923)
Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD)
(1) 1960s US Cold War policy that acknowledged the fact that the US & USSR had enough nuclear weapons to destroy each other many times over; (2) this policy actually led to greater stability b/c both nations hoped to prevent outright war with the other nation and (perhaps ironically) ushered in the era of détente
French Socialist who tried to nationalize industries and expand welfare benefits in the 1980s.
chancellor of east germany. In favor of unifications.
Pope John Paul II
This Polish Pope brought the world's attention to the solidarity movement of the Polish, calling for human rights. He became a hero of the Polish nation.
A Polish politician, a former trade union and human rights activist, and also a former electrician. He co-founded Solidarity, the Soviet bloc's first independent trade union, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983, and served as President of Poland from 1990 to 1995.
prime minister of Britain; strong relationship with Reagan; supported NATO, allowed US to store missiles in England; one of the first Western leaders to act warmly toward reformer Gorbachev