Political districts in which candidates elected to the House of Representatives win in close elections, typically by less than 55 percent of the vote.
Districts in which incumbents win by margins of 55% or more.
an expression of opinion either in the House or Senate to settle procedural matters in either body.
An expression of opinion without the force of law that requires the approval of both the House and the Senate, but not the President.
a formal expression of congressional opinion that must be approved by both houses of congress and by the president; constitutional amendments need not be signed by the president
Assistance given to constituents by congressional members, answering questions/doing favors
a congressional process whereby a bill may be referred to several committees
A congressional process by which a Speaker may send a bill to a second committee after the first is finished acting, or may refer parts of a bill to separate committees
Petition that, if signed by majority of the House of Representatives' members, will pry a bill from committee and bring it to the floor for consideration.
An order from the House Rules Committee that permits certain kinds of amendments but not others to be made into a bill on the floor.
Unpopular provision added to an important bill certain to pass so that it will "ride" through the legislative process
The minimum number of members who must be present to permit a legislative body to take official action
Christmas Tree Bill
a bill with many riders
A procedure to keep the Senate going during a filibuster in which the disputed bill is shelved temporarily so that the Senate can get on with other business.
legislation that gives tangible benefits to constituents in several districts or states in the hope of winning their votes in return
An agreement by two or more lawmakers to support each other's bills
to remove or withdraw from public view, automatic spending cuts?
House Rules Committee
Determines the rules for debate of each bill, including whether the bill may be amended. This is the most powerful committee in the House.
Ways and Means Committee
(GF) where almost all important work on tax law occurs; decides whether to go along with presidential requests for tax cuts or increases, changed under Ford
Small changes in policy over long periods of time; usually in reference to budget-making--that th ebest indicator of this year's budget is last year's budget plus a small increase
Issues that people believe require governmental action.
The politics of policy-making in which almost everybody benefits from a policy and almost everybody pays for it
A policy in which almost everybody benefits and a small group pays the cost.
A policy in which one small group benefits and almost everybody pays.
Interest Group Politics
A policy in which one small group benefits and another small group pays
the debt of the national government (as distinguished from the debts of individuals and businesses and political subdivisions)
Gross Domestic Product
the dollar amount of all final goods and services produced within a country's borders in a year.
Government policy that attempts to manage the economy by controlling the money supply and thus interest rates.
The federal government efforts to keep the economy stable by increasing or decreasing taxes or government spending
a summary of intended expenditures along with proposals for how to meet them
A quantity much larger than is needed
A claim for government funds that cannot be abridged without violating the rights of the claimant; for example, social security benefits or payments on a contract.
When government reciepts are less than the government expenditures during a fiscal year
A resolution binding Congress to a total expenditure level, supposedly the bottom line of all federal spending for all programs.
The period from Oct. 1 to Sept. 30 for which government appropriations are made and federal books are kept.
Federal Reserve Board
the 7-member board governing the Federal Reserve System
Missouri's General Assembly
Representative and such in Missouri.