Understanding Typography Techniques

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Desktop Publishing

The process of adding both text and graphics to a page to enhance the message; the use of word processing software or specialized desktop publishing software on a personal computer to create a document in which graphics and text enhance the message

Typography

the study of all elements of type including the shape, size, and spacing of the characters

Typeface

the design of the letters, number, and symbols that make up a font

Font

interchangeable with typeface

Serif

describes a typeface with extensions at the ends of the main strokes that define each letter; these extensions are called serifs

Sans Serif

described a typeface without serifs

Display Fonts

fonts designed to attract attention to the design of the font, as well as to the words

Grunge Type

a modern typeface that appears "distressed," with letters oddly shaped and not completely formed

Descender

the part of a lowercase letter that extends below the baseline, as in the letter g

Ascender

the part of a lowercase letter that extends above the x-height, as in the letter t

Point

a type measurement that equals 1/72 of an inch

Reverse Type

white type on a dark background, designed to make the type stand out

Monospace Font

looks as if it were created with a typewriter because each character is given the same space

Tracking

the amount of space between characters

Kerning

spaces certain characters closely enough that the small character fits under the larger

Ligature

two characters tied to each other in such a way that they appear to be one unit, such as f and i combined to form fi

Leading

the space between lines of text or between paragraphs

Alignment

the placement of text on a line either to the left, to the right, centered, or justified

En Dash

a line the width of the capital letter N in whatever font and point size are being used; it is used in ranges of numbers, letters, or dates

Em Dash

a line the width of the capital letter M in whatever font and point size are being used and indicated a break in thought

Em Space

a space the width of a capital letter M in the font and point size being used

En Space

half the size of an em space, is a space the width of a capital letter N in the font and point size being used

Clip Art

a picture or drawing created with the intention that the artwork will be used by others; clip art is packaged with desktop publishing software or can be purchased separately

Text Wrapping

moves text away from a graphic so that it flows around the image

Rule

a horizontal or vertical line

Pull Quote

a short text or article extract set off by rules or in a box

WordArt

a desktop publishing option that creates a graphic out of text by using curves, colors, and other effects

Watermark

a pale image placed on the background of a page and is ofter used for logos or other identification

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