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Silica, Calcite, and Iron Oxide

What are the three most common cementing agents for sandstones?

limestone

What is the most common chemical sedimentary rock?

very fine-grained volcanic ash deposited in an ancient lake

Which of the following would retain the most detailed impressions of fossilzed organisms?

5%

Sedimentary rocks account for about what percentage of the Earth's outermost 10km of rock?

conglomerate

Imagine a mountain stream whose fast-moving water has carried away all grains except for well-rounded pebbles, cobbles, and boulders. If such stream gravel were lithified, it would turn into

chemical/gypsum/halite

Evaporites are a type of BLANK sedimentary rock, examples are

gneiss

Which of the following forms at the highest grade of regional metamorphism?

calcite grains grow larger and form interlocking crystals

What major change occurs during metamorphism of limestone to marble?

slate

Which low-grade metamorphic rock, composed of very fine-grained minerals, is dull, and is fissile?

migmatite

Which rock is thought to form by the partial melting and crystallization of the melted portion within the rock?

high temperatures associated with meteorite impacts

Tektites originate in what metamorphic environment?

hornfels

Which of the following rocks is a nonfoliated rock formed by contact metamoprhism of shale or mudstone?

at great depths in the crust where two continents are colliding, forming mountains

In which setting would regional metamorphism be most likely?

rockslide

Which of the following mass wasting events moves the fastest and most destructive?

prolonged and intense rainfall

What was the main factor for the landslide at la conchita, Ca in 2005?

by type of material, velocity and type of motion

In general, how are mass wasting processes classified?

The soil expands and contracts, lifiting particles and dropping them at a slight distance downslope

How do freeze- thaw or wet- dry cycles contribute to soil creep?

Amazon

Which river has the largest discharge of any river in the world?

The natural channel had a lower gradient and higher friction than the straight channel

A natural, meandering river channel is modified into a more or less straight and smooth, canal-like channel.

The channel width times the channel depth times the velocity

What is the correct definiton of stream discharge?

Silt and clay-sized particles

What make up the suspended laods of most rivers and streams?

infiltration decreases; runoff increases

How does urbanization affect infiltration and runoff and infiltration in a small, previously forested, drainage basin?

trellis

a BLANK stream pattern developes on lands underlain by tilted or folded, alternating hard and soft sedimentary strata

v-shaped cross-valley profiles

BLANK are characteristics of downcutting streams and youthful stage of valley evolution

Evaporation and transpiration

What are the components of the hydrologic cycle that release water vapor directly to the atmosphere?

on the outer parts of the meander loops, cut bank

Where is erosion concentrated along a meandering stream?

it increases in maximum diameter nine times

If the velocity of a stream triples, how does this affect its competence?

Zone of soil moisture

What is the term for the zone where water is held by molecular attraction to soil particles?

the surface is irregular and is influenced by rainfall variation

What is true about the surface of the water table?

It can happen because interaction between groundwater and streams can change due to different factors

Is it possible that a single stream may be gaining in some areas and losing in others?

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