Battle of Hastings
a battle at which William the Conqueror defeated the English nobles and declared himself king of England
organizations of traders and other businesspeople
William the Conqueror
a king who unified England under his strong rule
an English king who signed the Magna Carta
a document signed by King John that limited the power of the king and set forth important ideas about law
due process of law
the idea that people must be treated fairly under the law
the first king of the Capetian dynasty
a series of kings in France who helped make the country a single kingdom
Hundred Years' War
a series of wars between England and France that lasted from 1337 to 1453
Joan of Arc
a woman who led the French against the English, who later burned her as a witch
Battle of Agincourt
an important English victory in the Hundred Years' War
a disease that killed many people in Europe during the Middle Ages
another term for the bubonic plague
Holy Roman Empire
a kingdom that united much of central Europe toward the end of the Middle Ages
the first king to be crowned emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
a strong emperor who came close to uniting the Holy Roman Empire
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