Fundamental particles that are put together to make things, like mass.
The 4 Fundamental Forces:
Attracts all objects w/ mass to other objects w/ mass. WEAKEST.
Long-range; attracts UNLINE charges and repels LIKE
Short-range; holds protons and neutrons together in the nucleus of an atom
Short-range; causes proton to turn into a neutron, a positron, and a neutrino. Responsible for Beta Decay.
Little things w/ almost no mass
Carry the forces around to other particles
Thought to give quarks mass; not yet discovered
Nuclear Fusion Formula:
nucleus1+nucleus2 => nucleus3+energy
(mass becomes energy)
The energy source for the Sun
How is the Sun able to keep producing so much energy so steadily for so long?
B/C a small amount of mass equals a large amount of energy. But it will eventually run out of matter, and will die.
What is the net result of the proton-proton chain?
4 hydrogens are fused into 1 helium, 2 neutrinos + energy (4H => He+energy+2neutrinos)
*Helium stays in core
*Energy becomes gamma rays and gradually looses energy as travels out of core. Emerges as visible light!
*Neutrinos escape w/o interacting
What natural barrier tries to prevent two protons from combining?
electromagnetic repulsion (force); ++
Where do the neutrons found in helium atoms come from in the Sun?
They are created when the weak nuclear force acts on a proton.
Which is the weakest of the fundamental forces?
the gravitational force
Neutrinos are emitted from...
The core of the sun
Neutrinos escape w/o...
Neutrinos prove what? What's the problem there?
Our theory of nuclear fusion. Problem is, we aren't finding enough according to our model. Most likely there is a problem with out understanding of neutrinos.
The first subatomic particle discovered was the...
In nuclear fusion, energy comes from...
What is required for nuclear fusion to happen?
Like-charged nuclei must get close enough to fuse, which can only happen under extremely high temperature.
Positrons have what charge?
Electrons have what charge?
Neutrinos have what charge?