← AP US History Chapter 14: "The Civil War" Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Fire-eaters Individuals who began to demand an end to the Union and spoke of southern nationalism. Fort Pickens A fort located at Pensacola, Florida that was the only significant federal fort to remain in Union control throughout the war. Fort Sumter Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War. Major Robert Anderson Commander of the federal army at Fort Sumter. John J. Crittenden Came up with the Crittenden Compromise. Crittenden Compromise The document that suggested..... 1. Constitutional amendment to guarantee slavery in the south 2. The reestablishment of the Missouri Compromise line. P.G.T. Beauregard Southern general ordered to take Fort Sumter accidental or unnecessary conflict argument for whether the civil war could have been avoided an irrepressible conflict The civil war was inevitible. Homestead Act-1862 permitted citizens to claim 160 acres to live on for 5 years then buy Morrill Act Gave federal land to states and public education. Created Land grant colleges Union Pacific Railroad Company Built transcontinental railroad westward from Omaha Central Pacific Railroad Company Built transcontinental railroad eastward from California (Harder Path) National Bank Act Created a new national banking system. Eliminated much of the chaos in banking. "greenbacks" Northern paper currency "Peace Democrats" Northerners who opposed war "Copperheads" Northerners who actually fought against the war effort. habeus corpus a legal principle that requires aurthorities to show reasons why a person should be held in custody and to provide a speedy trial Clement L Vallandigham Protested the war in the North. Was exiled to the South Ex parte Merryman -1861 Chief Justice Taney ruled that Lincoln had exceeded his authority in suspending the writ habeas corpus in Maryland. -Lincoln ignored Taney's ruling, argued that the constitution allowed this suspension in a time of rebellion Ex parte Milligan Ruled that a civilian cannot be tried in military courts while civil courts are available. Andrew Johnson Vice president in 1864 General George B. McClellan He Sucked. SO. BAD. General who basically screwed up a bunch of Northern "victories" First Confiscation Act-1861 Freed any slave fighting for the Southern rebellion Second Confiscation Act-1862 Authorized Lincolns use of blacks in the army Emancipation Proclamation Issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862, it declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states would be free. It didn't really free them, but gave the North a purpose to fight. U.S. Sanitary Commission Provided female nurses for military Dorothea Dix Founded the U.S. Sanitary Commision Susan B. Anthony Formed the National Woman's Loyal League in 1863 with Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Worked to abolish slavery, and fought for womens rights. Elizabeth Cady Stanton Formed the National Woman's Loyal League in 163 with Susan B. Anthony Clara Barton Known and "the angel of the battlefield". Later founder of the American Red Cross Jefferson Davis First President of the Confederate States of America Alexander H. Stephens Southern provisional vice president. He was a strong anti-secessionist. "in kind" tax tax of the percentage of what a state produced Zebulon Vance gov. of North Carolina. Beleived his state seceded so that they wouldn't have to follow a central government. Joseph Brown gov. of Georgia. Beleived his state seceded so that they wouldn't have to follow a central government. Henry W. Halleck Replaced General McClellan. He was not a good strategist and turned the decision making on Lincoln Ulysses S. Grant Became the Union's commanding general after his victory at the battle of Shiloh. Committee on the Conduct of the War A Joint committee of Congress, mostly led by radicals. Headed by Benjamin Wade of Ohio. Benjamin Wade Head of the Committee on the Conduct of the War. Critical of Lincoln. General Braxton Bragg Southern Commander. Won a few minor battles, but provided only technical advice. Merrimac Federal Ship. Confederates renamed it the Virginia. Made it ironclad and attempted to break the Union blockade Monitor Union ironclad ship. defeated the confederate Virginia (Merrimac) Judah P. Benjamin Confederate Secretary of State. Couldn't quite convince any European nation to aid the South. Charles Francis Adams Northern ambassador to Britain during the war. Did a great job of keeping Britain out of the war. King Cotton Diplomacy The southern belief that the British needed them for cotton, and that this would force Britain to help the South. Trent Affair Confederacy wanted to send John Slidell and James Mason to England and France as ambassadors. British would pick them up. Charles Wilkes Union commander. Stopped the british Trent and took the two diplomats prisoner. Laird Rams British ship company that built ships specifically for breaking blockades. Confederacy bought several. North was able to stop delivery. William C. Quantrill Captain in the confederate army who organized guerilla fighters in Missouri and killed everyone in their path. "Jayhawkers" Union Sympathizers General Irvin McDowell Led an army of 30,000 against P.G.T. Beauregard in the 1st Battle of Bull Run. Governor Clairborne Jackson Formed an army to take Missouri out of the Union Nathaniel Lyon U.S. army officer, challenged Clairborne Jackson Battle of Wilson's Creek Aug, 10, 1861. fought between Nathaniel Lyon and Clairborne Jackson. Lyon was killed, but his army won. David G. Farragut Fought in the Western Theater. Entered mississippi and captured New Orleans. Albert Sidney Johnston Defended the front line in Tennessee. Was too far behind the confederate line Henry, and Donelson Two forts easily lost by Albert Sidney Johnston Battle of Shiloh The second great battle of the American Civil War (1862), the battle ended with the withdrawal of Confederate troops but it was not a Union victory. Don Carlos Buell Moved in to save overwhelmed union troops at the Battle of Shiloh William S. Rosecrans Replaced Don Carlos Buell. Commanded in the Battle of Murfreesboro. Peninsular Campaign A complicated route to capture Richmond that McClellan thought would circumvent the Confederate defenses. The navy would carry his troops down the Potomac to a peninsula east of Richmond, between the York and James Rivers; the army would approach the city from there. Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson general in the Confederate Army during the Civil War whose troops at the first Battle of Bull Run stood like a stone wall (1824-1863) Battle of Fair Oaks Battle. Joseph E. Johnston was to stop McClellan's peninsular campaign. McClellan was forced back to the coast and sent for reinforcements, but was denied and called back by Lincoln. Battle of Murfreesboro battle in Tennessee between Braxton Bragg and William S. Rosecrans that ended inconclusively First Battle of Bull Run First major battle of the Civil War, in which untrained Northern troops and civilian picnickers fled back to Washington. This battle helped boost Southern morale and made the North realize that this would be a long war. Second Battle of Bull Run Conflict between Lee and General John Pope in August 1862, ending in a decisive victory by Lee that led to increased confidence and an attempt to convince Maryland to secede. Battle of Antietam Lee's attack on Maryland in hopes that he could take it from the Union, bloodiest day of the war, stalemate, McClellan replaced by Burnside, stalemate, South would never be so close to victory again. Ambrose Burnside Placed in command on Union military after the failure at the battle Antietam. Conducted the Battle of Fredericksburg, replaced by Joseph Hooker. Rappahannock River Ambrose Burnside crossed this river to go through Fredericksburg and confront the Confederates in the heights above the town. General Joseph Hooker Replaced Ambrose Burnside. Made another attempt at confederates in Fredericksburg. Lost his nerve and retreated into the wilderness. Defeated at the battle of Chancellorsville. Battle of Chancellorsville Stonewall Jackson and General E. Lee attacked Hooker on a piece of farmland. Confederate victory. Vicksburg Union general Grant seized this city. This victory allowed the North to achieve.... 1. Complete control of the mississippi river 2. Split of the confederacy George C. Meade Replaced General Joseph Hooker. Commander during the battle of Gettysburg with 90,000 men. Pickett's charge Pickett's 15,000 men charge up the hill in 1 mile of open terrain in Gettysburg. Attempted 14 times to take the hill. Failed everytime. Complete Union victory. Battle of Chattanooga Union victory that gave the union control of Tennessee. Battle of Chickamauga Confederate victory after the battle of Chattanooga. William T. Sherman Led Second western offensive and destroyed confederate forces in Atlanta, and marched from Atlanta to the coast while burning all in his path. Joseph Johnston Remaining confederate forces in Atlanta Georgia. Battle of the Wilderness Grant and Lee battled and Grant was defeated but kept advancing. Battle of Cold Harbor Battle between Grant and Lee.Grant kept advancing after many casualties, and then advanced to Petersburg VA. Petersburg South of Richmond. Contained a railroad center that supplied war supplies. Grant laid siege to it for nine months. Kennesaw Mountain After retreating into Georgia from Sherman, Johnston scored an impressive victory, then retreated. John B. Hood Replaced Johnston, but couldn't stop Sherman who took Atlanta. Battle of Nashville Fought between George Henry Thomas and Sherman. Hoods army under control of Thomas lost big-time. March to the sea Sherman's march from Atlanta to the coast reaking havoc "War is Hell" Sherman quote about war. Appomattox Court House Grant cut Lee off. They met here and Lee surrendered.