Plessy v. Fergusen
Ruled that "separate but equal facilities" were allowable by law. Generally seen as a step back for civil rights.
Munn v. Illinois
The Munn case allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads
Wabash, St. Louis, and Pacific Railroad Company v. Illinois
Decision that severely limited the rights of states to control interstate commerce. It led to the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission.
Describe the business of railroads in the Gilded Age
Railroads mostly formed by Trusts / monopolies / giant companies. Big boom of transportation, railroads from coast to coast. ICC meant government intervention in the production of railroads.
Industry mostly set up by Andrew Carnegie, who built himself from nothing. He used vertical integration (co. controlled every aspect) to keep a monopoly over the steel industry. He sold to JP Morgan and then used his money philanthropically.
JP Morgan owned 90% of the oil refining business thanks to his monopoly, which used horizontal integration (all under one company). "Standard Oil Giant"
Survival of the fittest idea applied to social status / business.
Gospel of Wealth
You need to use philanthropy if you are blessed with large amounts of money. Ideal of Andrew Carnegie
National Labor Union
Skilled and unskilled workers who wanted higher wages and better hours. Wanted equal rights for women and blacks. Won eight hour work days but eventually lost support.
Knights of Labor
All workers. Wanted abolition of child labor and trusts. Declined after Haymarket bombing.
Labor movement going on to get 8-hour day for all, police were trying to break it up. Someone threw a bomb. It was most likely an anarchists living there..but the union lost popularity regardless
AFL (American Federation of Labor)
Led by Samuel Gompers for higher wages and better conditions. Focused on practical goals with only skilled workers
Andrew Carnegie cut wages by 20%, striking and lockout strike for months by the AA. Was a defeat for laborers.
Pullman created a town for his workers to live in, but eventually his rules became too oppressive. He cut wages, not allowing them to live elsewhere and then fired anyone who tried to bargain with him. Eugene Debs led the rebellion.
New Immigrants v. Old Immigrants of the Gilded Age
New immigrants from Greece, Russia, Poland, etc. were disdained by the old immigrants of Germany, England, Ireland, and Scandinavia
Coxey's Army was a protest march by unemployed workers from the United States, led by the populist Jacob Coxey. They marched on Washington D.C. in 1894, the second year of a four-year economic depression
Rutherford B. Hayes Presidency (Republican)
Voted into office after the Compromise of 1877, where Democrats let him take office only if he ended reconstruction.
Stalwarts and Half-breeds
The split in Republicans during this time period. Stalwarts = Conkling; Half-breeds = Blaine. Neither group trusted the other, and the split left the Republican Party unable to pass any significant legislation during this time.
Railroad Strike of 1877
When railroad workers throughout the United States went on strike to protest the lowering of their salaries. More than a hundred people died during violence related to the strike, forcing Hayes to use federal troops to suppress the uprisings.
Rise of the Populists
Response to McKinley Tariff of 1890. Farmer's alliance merged with other liberal Democrats to form this Populist party. James B. Weaver was elected for president and campaigned on a platform of unlimited, cheap silver money pegged at a rate of sixteen ounces of silver to one ounce of gold. Populists also campaigned for government ownership of all railroad and telephone companies, a graduated income tax, direct election of U.S. senators, one-term limits for presidents, immigration restrictions, shorter workdays, and a referendum.
Election of 1896
McKinley's win represented a victory for urban middle-class Americans over agrarian interests in the West and South. Populism never really spread into the cities, and Bryan's appeal for free silver and inflation alienated even the poorest Americans in the cities, who depended on a stable dollar to survive. Marked end of Populist movement
What is progressivism?
A political ideology advocating or favoring social, political, and economic reform or changes through the state. Progressivism was embraced in the administration of American President Theodore Roosevelt.
Roosevelt believed that the United States should always be prepared to fight. He applied his favorite proverb to the country: "Speak softly and carry a big stick, and you will go far," and bolstered the U.S. Army and Navy. Roosevelt's so-called Big Stick Diplomacy soon became synonymous with imperialism and aggressiveness, as his policy often took advantage of smaller and weaker nations. Also looked at Trust Busting.
TR's Square Deal
"Square Deal" to protect the public interest of the middle class citizen. Worked with antitrust suits to stop large corporations from running America. Treated corporations no different than the "little people". Rebates in railroad no longer allowed. Start of FDA-esque regulations on food.
TR's Impact on conservation
TR was adamant about conserving wildlife, and therefore made national parks throughout the nation to therefore ensure that the forests of america would not die out.
Muckrackers were the journalists and writers who "raked the muck" about the floor and spread it out for people to see. They rallied progressive movements. They aquired their name by TR.
Changes in state and municipal government
Voters in many cities and states succeeded in their fight for direct primary elections and the secret ballot to eliminate bribes and reduce the power of political machines. Many states passed laws granting voters the power of initiative, or the right to directly propose legislation themselves; the referendum, allowing Americans to vote directly for or against specific laws; and the power to recall corrupt elected officials.
Wilson's New Freedom
Wilson reduced the tariff, passed more anti-trust legislation, and reformed the banking system.
Drastically reduced duties on foreign goods from an average rate of 40 percent to an average rate of 25 percent. Congress compensated for the loss of revenue by creating a national income tax under the Sixteenth Amendment, another major progressive achievement of 1913.
Wilson and Congress passed the Federal Reserve Act to create a decentralized national bank comprising twelve regional branches. Federal Reserve Board had the final say in decisions affecting all branches, including setting interest rates and issuing currency.
Clayton Anti Trust Act
Unlike the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, the Clayton Anti-Trust Act actually gave lawmakers the power to punish monopolistic corporations. Furthermore, it legalized labor unions and their right to strike peacefully.
Washington v. Dubois
Booker T. Washington focused on having education for real life jobs and not asking for equality from the whites. He just focused on getting help from the whites and accepting their place as blacks on earth. WEB Dubois focused on the exact opposite things that of Booker T. Washington; he wanted blacks to be intellectually equal to whites.
the extension or imposition of power, authority, or influence from a country
Open Door Policy
The policy Hays had toward China, asking all nations to not partition up China completely and leave it completely open for trade. Result: Other countries surprisingly listened
Addition to the Monroe Doctrine that basically implied that The United States will intervene in conflicts between European Nations and Latin American countries to enforce legitimate claims of the European powers, rather than having the Europeans press their claims directly.
What lead up to the Spanish American War?
Cubans revolted against their Spanish oppressors. Americans had some stock in Cuba. Cleveland was dead set against going to war, but Americans wanted to especially after the Yellow Journalism propaganda of the time period. Then the Maine exploded, after being sent to merely check on what was happening in Cuba. With reasons unknown, this greatly upsetted Americans. McKinley finally submitted to the pressures of the public wanting to go to war.
What happened during the Spanish American War?
Roosevelt ordered for the attack of Spanish territories in the Phillipines. They then invaded Cuba with the Rough Riders The US Navy destroyed the Spanish Navy and the Spanish asked for peace.
Following the Spanish American War...
Cuban independence, but American annexation of the Phillipines and other formerly Spanish islands.