Ancient History Chapter 1 Test

64 terms by jacklynabernathy15

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Brock Ancient History

surplus

more than is necessary

traditional economy

relies on habit, custom, or ritual and tends not to change over time

civilization

complex, highly organized social order

steppe

sparse, dry grasslands

polytheistic

believing in many gods

artisan

skilled craftsman

pictograph

simple drawings that look like the objects they represent

scribe

specially trained people who could read and write

cultural diffusion

the spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another

city-state

a political unit that included a city and its surrounding lands and villages

empire

a group of states or territories controlled by one ruler

Old Stone Age or Paleolithic Period

the period from at least 2 million B.C. to about 10,000 B.C.

New Stone Age or Neolithic Period

the period from about 10,000 B.C. to the end of prehistory

nomad

person who move from place to place to find food

animism

the belief that the world is full of spirits and forces that might reside in animals, objects, or dreams

Neolithic Revolution

transition from nomadic life to settled farming

domesticate

to raise plants and animals in a controlled way that makes them best suited to human use

Çatalhüyük

one of the first Neolithic villages in modern-day Turkey

Jericho

one of the first Neolithic villages, still exists as an Israeli-controlled city

prehistory

the long period of time before people invented writing

historians

scholars who study and write about the historical past

artifacts

objects made by humans

anthropology

the study of the origins and development of people and their societies

culture

the way of life as a society, including its beliefs, values, and practices

archaeology

the study of past people and cultures through their material remains

Mary Leakey

started searching for clues to the human past in a deep canyon in Tanzania & Kenya, found ancient tools, found hominid skull

Louis Leakey

started searching for clues to the human past in a deep canyon in Tanzania & Kenya, found ancient tools

Olduvai Gorge

a deep canyon in Tanzania

technology

the skills and tools people use to meet their basic needs and wants

Donald Johanson

discovered skeletons of early hominids in Ethiopia in 1974

Lucy

a hominid skeleton dated to 3 million years old

by asking questions about the evidence like detectives would

How do historians evaluate evidence to determine if it is reliable?

how ancient peoples lived

Artifacts play a key role in the study of

tools chipped from stone

Which discovery encouraged the Leakeys to continue looking for human remains at Olduvai Gorge?

They all walked upright on two feet

What characteristic did early hominid groups share?

They were the first hominids to learn how to use fire

Which statement describes Homo erectus?
(they were the first hominids to make stone tools, they lived in Africa 7 million years ago, they were the first hominids to learn how to use fire, they were the first modern humans)

spoken language

What was the greatest advance of the Old Stone Age people?

they started burying dead

What is the main clue about the religious beliefs of Old Stone Age people?

settled farming and communities

What important change allowed people to invent new technology?

separate roles, such as warriors and elders

During the Neolithic Period, people began to develop

merchants, priests, nobles

Who did scribes write for?

located near major rivers

The earliest civilizations developed were

complex religions, social classes, and writing

What are three basic features of most early civilizations?

priests and nobles, wealthy merchants, artisans, peasant farmers, slaves

In the cities, what were the social classes in descending order?

rulers gained power and conquered areas outside their cities

What led to the rise of city-states?

peasant farmers

What social class occupied the majority of the population?

organized governments, complex religions, job specialization, social classes, arts and architecture, public works, writing

What are the seven features that define civilization?

bricklayers, potters, metalworkers, blacksmiths, soldiers, singers, dancers

Give 5 examples of artisans.

hunting

For what did humans develop language?

it could lead to political power

Why did few societies allow women to become scribes?

Rain and fertile soil, stone, timber, or metals

What was necessary in an environment for survival of a civilization?

Animals that flocked to the rivers to drink were a source of food and conditions in the river valleys favored farming, provided a regular water supply and a means of transportation, floodwaters spread silt-tiny bits of rock and dirt from the river bottom--across the valleys, renewing the soil and keeping it fertile, farmers were able to produce surpluses of food, allowing them to store food for the future

Why were the earliest civilizations to develop all situated near major rivers?

Sumer between the Tigris and Euphrates,
Egypt along the Nile,
The Indus civilization along the Indus in India,
Shang civilization along the Huang or Yellow River in China

What were the first four river civilizations and what rivers did they originate around?

People learned to farm on the sides of mountains or to fill in swamps with land for farming.

What did people do to farm in Central and South America?

Australopithecines

first group of hominids, lived in Africa up to 7 mil. years ago

homo habilis

"handy man," lived abt. 2 mil. years ago

homo erectus

"upright man," lived abt. 2 mil. years ago

homo sapiens

modern humans

September 19, 1991

When did they find the Iceman?

glacier on Alps on the border of Italy near Austria

Where did they find the Iceman?

4000 years old

How old was the Iceman when he was discovered?

hypothermia, murdered by arrow in shoulder blade

How did the Iceman die?

Otzi

What is the Iceman's name?

a metal blade ax, wood and stone knife, marble bead, small leather pouch, size 5 leather shoe with eyelets and laces with grass inside as warmth, pyrite, charcoal, 14 arrows, spiral feathering, probably made from red deer hide with fine stitching, but may have been repaired

What was the Iceman found with?

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