more than is necessary
relies on habit, custom, or ritual and tends not to change over time
complex, highly organized social order
sparse, dry grasslands
believing in many gods
simple drawings that look like the objects they represent
specially trained people who could read and write
the spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another
a political unit that included a city and its surrounding lands and villages
a group of states or territories controlled by one ruler
Old Stone Age or Paleolithic Period
the period from at least 2 million B.C. to about 10,000 B.C.
New Stone Age or Neolithic Period
the period from about 10,000 B.C. to the end of prehistory
person who move from place to place to find food
the belief that the world is full of spirits and forces that might reside in animals, objects, or dreams
transition from nomadic life to settled farming
to raise plants and animals in a controlled way that makes them best suited to human use
one of the first Neolithic villages in modern-day Turkey
one of the first Neolithic villages, still exists as an Israeli-controlled city
the long period of time before people invented writing
scholars who study and write about the historical past
objects made by humans
the study of the origins and development of people and their societies
the way of life as a society, including its beliefs, values, and practices
the study of past people and cultures through their material remains
started searching for clues to the human past in a deep canyon in Tanzania & Kenya, found ancient tools, found hominid skull
started searching for clues to the human past in a deep canyon in Tanzania & Kenya, found ancient tools
a deep canyon in Tanzania
the skills and tools people use to meet their basic needs and wants
discovered skeletons of early hominids in Ethiopia in 1974
a hominid skeleton dated to 3 million years old
by asking questions about the evidence like detectives would
How do historians evaluate evidence to determine if it is reliable?
how ancient peoples lived
Artifacts play a key role in the study of
tools chipped from stone
Which discovery encouraged the Leakeys to continue looking for human remains at Olduvai Gorge?
They all walked upright on two feet
What characteristic did early hominid groups share?
They were the first hominids to learn how to use fire
Which statement describes Homo erectus?
(they were the first hominids to make stone tools, they lived in Africa 7 million years ago, they were the first hominids to learn how to use fire, they were the first modern humans)
What was the greatest advance of the Old Stone Age people?
they started burying dead
What is the main clue about the religious beliefs of Old Stone Age people?
settled farming and communities
What important change allowed people to invent new technology?
separate roles, such as warriors and elders
During the Neolithic Period, people began to develop
merchants, priests, nobles
Who did scribes write for?
located near major rivers
The earliest civilizations developed were
complex religions, social classes, and writing
What are three basic features of most early civilizations?
priests and nobles, wealthy merchants, artisans, peasant farmers, slaves
In the cities, what were the social classes in descending order?
rulers gained power and conquered areas outside their cities
What led to the rise of city-states?
What social class occupied the majority of the population?
organized governments, complex religions, job specialization, social classes, arts and architecture, public works, writing
What are the seven features that define civilization?
bricklayers, potters, metalworkers, blacksmiths, soldiers, singers, dancers
Give 5 examples of artisans.
For what did humans develop language?
it could lead to political power
Why did few societies allow women to become scribes?
Rain and fertile soil, stone, timber, or metals
What was necessary in an environment for survival of a civilization?
Animals that flocked to the rivers to drink were a source of food and conditions in the river valleys favored farming, provided a regular water supply and a means of transportation, floodwaters spread silt-tiny bits of rock and dirt from the river bottom--across the valleys, renewing the soil and keeping it fertile, farmers were able to produce surpluses of food, allowing them to store food for the future
Why were the earliest civilizations to develop all situated near major rivers?
Sumer between the Tigris and Euphrates,
Egypt along the Nile,
The Indus civilization along the Indus in India,
Shang civilization along the Huang or Yellow River in China
What were the first four river civilizations and what rivers did they originate around?
People learned to farm on the sides of mountains or to fill in swamps with land for farming.
What did people do to farm in Central and South America?
first group of hominids, lived in Africa up to 7 mil. years ago
"handy man," lived abt. 2 mil. years ago
"upright man," lived abt. 2 mil. years ago
September 19, 1991
When did they find the Iceman?
glacier on Alps on the border of Italy near Austria
Where did they find the Iceman?
4000 years old
How old was the Iceman when he was discovered?
hypothermia, murdered by arrow in shoulder blade
How did the Iceman die?
What is the Iceman's name?
a metal blade ax, wood and stone knife, marble bead, small leather pouch, size 5 leather shoe with eyelets and laces with grass inside as warmth, pyrite, charcoal, 14 arrows, spiral feathering, probably made from red deer hide with fine stitching, but may have been repaired
What was the Iceman found with?