makes sure people treated justly and protect worker, esp in large industrial companies ( the sweat of laborer lubricated the vast new industrial machine yet the wage workers did not share proportionately with their employers in the benefits of the big business)
age of corruption
Knights of Labor
only excluded non-productive workers ( liquor dealers, pro gamblers, lawyer, bankers, stock brokers) (had many weird handshakes/ secret rituals)
meeting, someone threw dynamite/ bomb; sentenced anarchists (against gvmt) to be punished even though proven innocent; workers lashing out against bosses;
poor working conditions + workers=
angry workers (incident of violence not unlikely that this would happen esp with labor unions)
American Federation of Labor; AF of L
wanted better working conditions ex: better wages, hours, working conditions
capitalist- cigar maker; elected president of the AF of L from years 1886- 1924 all but one year
Why would industrialization be unsuccessful?
- working conditions
Why would industrialization be successful?
- labor unions
Sherman Anti- Trust Act of 1890
forbade combinations in restraint of trade without distinction of good and bad trusts; contrary to original intent- it used to curb labor unions or labor combinations that were deemed to be restraining trade
The impact of the New Industrial Revolution on America
- Agriculture declined as wage earning manufacturing increased
- Standards of living rose
- Lives were very regimented
- Women; got jobs, but paid less
- Delayed marriages and smaller families
- Foreign Exportation
all global economies are dependent on one another
Utilization of Natural Resources
burning of coal, iron, oil; "dirty energy" starts here
cheap unskilled labor
-1820- 1840; democratic nature of government- christian background, German
-1880-1890; non democratic nature- chinese, italians, irish, non religious
What was a major problem of the immigrants during the eighties and nineties?
people could be not paid, no benefits, harsh working conditions; americans could not relate to any of these people therefore making it harder to do anything to help them
New Technology during this time period...
cash register, stock ticker, typewriter, fridge car, electric dynamo, electric railroad
Alexander Graham Bell
made MANY new things some listed under new technology one of most important was THE lightbulb
put your stocks in ours- creates a monopoly trust
producing everything for a good on your own from producing to marketing
vertical integration- steel company
John D. Rockefeller
horizontal integration- standard oil "Standard Oil Company"
horizontal integration- banking
Oil is used in..
The Bessemer Process
William Kelly- "air boiling"
Gospel of Wealth
"God gave me my money because I am morally responsible with it"
survival of the fittest concept of Gospel of Wealth
survival of the fittest
Reverend Russell Conwell
Acres of Diamonds Speech
Trust lawyers hid behind what amendment?
Iron Colt turns into
Why was there such a big outburst of railroad construction?
Government subsides of land- "money and land"
railroad is all over the country
railroad scandal including: (congressman covered up)
1. Union Pacific Railroad
2. Central Pacific Railroad
1. Northern Pacific Railroad
2.The Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe
3. Southern Pacific
4.Great Northern (no government subsidies; James Hill)
Central Pacific Railroad
started by Leland Stanford and Collis Huntington
What were some of the dangers from working on the railroads?
many people were killed by premature explosions. rough conditions-very hot and sweaty
Some people railroads going from no where to no where...
commonly caused bankruptcy (one of the leading factors of Great Depression)
"Commodore" Cornelius Vanderbuilt and other inventors created...
1. steel rails (steel= heavier load)
2. standard gauge
3. Westinghouse airbrake: easier way to stop train
4.Pullman Palace Cars "gorgeous traveling hotels"
What was the main importance of the Revolution by Railroads?
1. It stimulated the economy (american goods,steel, coal, and transportation of people and goods)
2. Stimulated immigration
3.Time Zones "Railroad Standard Time"
What was some of the wrong doing in the Railroad Industry?
1. Jay Gould
2. stock- watering
3. promoters profits advertising
5. widespread corruption (bribery)
6. pool- secret rebated
What is stock watering?
makes people pay more and the people profit the extra money
Similarity between- Knights of Labor and National Labor Movement?
included all workers in one big union
American Federation of Labor
association of self governing national union
division between federal, state, and local government
liked strong government
Cornering the Gold Market
Jim Fisk and Jay Gould
- Black Friday
congressmen getting around high whiskey tariffs
powerful "giant" who controlled government because of his wealth- found a way to get 200 Million form the area *known for 'fixing elections'
no political experience