Music History Graduate School Exam Prep
|Pope Gregory I A.K.A. Gregory The Great (Roman Church)|| Reign: 590 - 604 (5th Century)|
Supposed creator of Gregorian Chant
|Guido d' Arezzo (Italian Monk)|| Dates: 991 - 1033 (11th Century)|
Responsible for systematic and consistent application of the eight-mode system (Dorian, Phrygian, etc.)
|Bernart da Ventadorn (France)|| Dates: 1140 - 1190 (12th Century)|
One of the most famous and prolific of all troubadours.
|Adam de la Halle (France)||Dates: 1237?-1288 (13th Century)|
|jongleur|| 12th and 13th Centuries|
Performers of Troubadours Music, Expected to embellish and improvise.
|troubadours|| 12th and 13th Centuries|
Southern France. Wrote Songs in Occitan (Related to French and Spanish)
|Plainsong (Plainchant)|| Early Medieval|
Monophonic Sacred Music of the Medieval Christian Church
|Gregorian Chant||Plainchant named after the supposed creator Pope Gregory I|
|Antiphonal Psalmody|| Medieval Roman Church|
Type of recitation in which order is Antiphon (Plainchant) - Psalm Recitation - Antiphon
Music of the Divine Office
|trouvères|| 12th and 13th Centuries|
Northern France. Wrote Songs in medieval French
|Minnesingers|| 12th - 14th Centuries|
German version of Troubadours
|Meistersingers|| 14th - 16th Centuries|
Continued traditions of Minnesingers
Sign used in early chant notation to indicate pitch
|Syllabic Setting|| Early Medieval|
One note per syllable of text
|neumatic setting|| Early Medieval|
Two or more notes per syllable (plainchant)
|Melismatic Setting|| Early Medieval|
Five or more Notes per Syllable on long sustained vowels as in the Alleluia
|Medieval Modes|| Early Medieval|
Modes Used for plainchant which include: Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian, and their Hypo's (8 total)
|hexachord|| Early Medieval|
Group of six notes separated by whole step except 3rd and 4th note (by half-step).
|solmization|| Early Medieval|
Attributing distinct syllable to each note in a scale
|Roman Mass and Office|| Office is fixed schedule of prayer and psalms|
featuring antiphons and plainchant. Mass
took place every day and was open to public
|Sequence (Early Medieval)|| Early Medieval|
repeated phrases are framed by individual phrase
|jubilus|| Early Medieval|
Long melisma on final syllable in Alleluia
|Psalm Tone|| Early Medieval|
Plainchant formula used to recite the psalm
|Liber Usualis (compiled in France by Abbey of Solesmes)|| Features Early Medieval Chants|
book of commonly used Gregorian chants in the Catholic tradition
|Trope|| Early Medieval|
Musical or textual addition to existing plainchant
Many times at beginning or end. Sometimes within
|liturgical drama|| Early Medieval|
Liturgical passage in chant theatrically portrayed
|chanson de geste|| Early Medieval|
Longest form of of troubadour music
|Aquitanian Polyphony|| 8th and 9th Century|
One of most important centers of polyphony
|Notre Dame School|| 12th Century|
Most elaborate forms of organum from here
|Leonin|| 12th Century|
Wrote large quantities of Organa for liturgical year
|Melismatic Organum|| 12th century|
Multiple notes in added voices run against
individual notes in the original chant
|Organum|| 9th - 12th Centuries|
Plainchant in one voice with at least one
additional voice above or below it
|Parallel organum|| 9th Century|
Organum where added voice runs parallel to original plainchant voice
|Perotin|| 12th Century|
Contemporary of Leonin, Added 3rd (triplum)
& 4th (quardruplum) voices to organum
|Rhythmic Modes|| 12th Century|
Allowed composers to distinguish between
long and short notes by setting rhythmic mode
|Discant-Style Clausula|| 12th Century|
Brief polyphonic sections that can be substituted at will
into appropriate section of larger existing organum work
|Motet (Medieval)|| Late 12th, Early 13th Century|
Polyphonic vocal work
|Polyphonic conductus|| 12th, 13th Centuries|
Consist of 1, 2, 3, or 4 voices. Freely Composed poetry
written in metered verse. Voices roughly same rhythm.
|Franco of Cologne|| Mid 13th Century|
Introduced Franconian notation, precise system of
mensural notation. (Assigned meaning to note shapes).
|Mensural Notation|| mid- 13th Century|
System where notes are given shapes to
distinguish rhythmic meaning.
|Petrus de Cruce|| Late 13th Century|
Introduced Petronian notation. Refined
Franco's system (enabled greater subdivision)
|isorhythm|| 14th, 15th Centuries|
An isorhythmic tenor is based on a fixed rhythmic and melodic pattern that is repeated at least once, usually more.
|Hocket|| 14th, Early 15th Centuries|
Rapid-fire voice outbursts in song
|Philippe de Vitry (France)|| 1291 - 1361 (13th and 14th Centuries)|
Composer and believed to have written Ars Nova
|Ars Nova|| 14th Century|
"New Art" style of music label of 14th Century French Music
|Francesco Landini|| 1325 - 1397|
Italian blind composer of the 14th Century
|Trescento|| 14th Century|
1300s or 14th Century Italian Music
|Musica enchiriadis|| 9th Century|
Treatise. first surviving attempt to establish a system of rules for polyphony in classical music.
|Vox Principalis|| 9th Century|
Plainchant melody (Principal Voice in Organum)
|Vox organalis|| 9th Century|
Organal (Additional) Voice in organum
|Cantus Firmus||Fixed Melody that serves as basis of composition|
|Winchester Trooper|| 9th Century ?|
Contains perhaps the oldest large collections
of two-part music in Europe
|Roman de Fauvel|| 14th Century|
Prominent Ars Nova Work written by Gervias de Bus
|Music Ficta|| Late Medieval, Renaissance|
Notes were sharpened/flattened according
to various convention, such as raised leading
tone or avoiding cross-relations between voices
|Landini Cadence|| 14th Century|
Instead of cadencing from major 6th to perfect octave,
L.C. goes from maj 6th - Perfect 5th - Perfect Octave.
Exp: Cadence in C = DG (M6) - DA (P5) - CC(P8)
|isorhythmic motet|| Late Medieval|
Motet featuring isorhymic (tenor)
|Messe de Notre Dame|| 1360s|
Mass of Our Lady - Only 14th Century polyphonic
Setting of the Complete Mass Ordinary
|Formes Fixes|| Middle of 14th Century|
Most important varieties of secular song in
France: Ballade, Virelai, Rondeau
|Ballade|| Middle of 14th Century|
Structure: A, A, B, D (Refrain)
|Rondeau|| Middle of 14th Century|
|Virelai (France)|| Middle of 14th Century|
|Madrigal (Italy)|| 14th Century|
Strophic with Ritornello at the end. Ritornello often
in contrasting meter.
|Caccia|| Late Medieval|
Usually Deals with hunting, or lively scenes.
Usually for 3 voices with canonic upper voices and
|Ritornello||"Brief Return" or Reprise.. ABACADA...|
|Ballata (Italy)|| Late Medieval|
|Leonel Power|| Early Renaissance|
Prominent English composer. one of the first
first composers to set separate movements
of the Ordinary of the Mass
|John Dunstable|| Early Renaissance|
Most famous English Composer
Implemented full triadic harmony and
use of the "third" in music. Member of B.S.
|Burgundian School (B.S.)|| 15th Century|
Active composers in the 15th century in what is now
northern and eastern France, Belgium, and the Netherlands, centered on the court of the Dukes of Burgundy.
|Gilles Binchois|| Early Renaissance|
Famous Composer of 15th Century. Early Member of B.S. Wrote songs for court and of love and chivalry. Were easy to sing and were memorable
|Johannes Ockeghem|| Early Renaissance|
Famous composer. Influenced Dufay and Josquin des Prez.
Member of Franco-Flemish School.
|Antoine Busnois|| Early Renaissance|
French member of Burgundian School. Leading Figure after death of Dufay.
|Jacob Obrecht|| Early Renaissance|
most famous composer of masses in Europe in the late 15th century. Member of Franco Flemish School.
|Heinrich Isaac|| Early Renaissance|
Contemporary of Josquin. Member of Franco Flemish School.
First significant master of the Franco-Flemish polyphonic style who both lived in German-speaking areas.
|Old Hall Manuscript|| Early Renaissance|
Largest complete source of 14th and 15th century sacred music.
|fauxbourdon|| Early Renaissance|
is a technique of musical harmonization used in the late Middle Ages & early Renaissance, particularly by composers of the Burgundian School.
In its simplest form, it consists of the cantus firmus and two other parts a sixth and a perfect fourth below.
|chanson (French)|| Early Renaissance|
epic poems performed to simple monophonic melodies
by a professional class of jongleurs or ménestrels.
Usually recounted deeds of heroes, legends, etc.
|Imitation Mass|| Early Renaissance|
Uses pre-existing music-parts as basis
such as motet parts for new mass
|Motet (Renaissance)|| Early Renaissance|
Composers abandoned isorhythmic
things such as cantus firmus. Were in
essence sacred madrigals.
|Frottola|| 15th, 16th Centuries|
Popular Italian secular Song. Eventually
replaced by the madrigal.
|Ottaviano Petrucci (Italian)|| Late Renaissance|
Famous Printer. Printed the first book of polyphony using movable type published numerous works by the most highly regarded composers Such as Josquin.
|Adrian Willaert|| Late Renaissance|
Founder of Venetian School (V.S.)
|Jacob Arcadelt (F.F.)|| Late Renaissance|
Composer of Secular Vocal Music.
Famous for early madrigals
Wrote a book of madrigals that was widely printed.
|Cipriano de Rore (F.F.)|| Late Renaissance|
one of the most prominent composers of
madrigals in the middle of the 16th century
Style was experimental, chromatic, and highly expressive
|Luca Marenzio|| Late Renaissance|
Italian Composer that wrote
|Carlo Gesualdo|| Late Renassiace|
Italian Composer who wrote madrigals and
used chromaticism not seen again until the
|Claudio Monteverdi|| Late Renaissance|
Style marked the transition from Renaissance style
to the Baroque Period. Developed Renaissance polyphony
and basso continuo
|Orlando di Lasso (F.F.) and Counter-Reformation|| Late Renaissance|
chief representative of the mature polyphonic style of F.F.
one of the three most famous and influential musicians
in Europe at the end of the 16th century
|Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (Italian)|| Late Renaissance (Counter-Reformation) |
Best known composer of Roman School
culmination of Renaissance polyphony
Dissonances landed on "weak beats"
|Claudin de Sermisy|| Late Renaissance|
French composer renowned for chansons
in the 16th Century
|Michael Praetorius|| Late Renaissance|
German composer significant in development of musical forms based on Protestant Hymns
|Tomas Luis de Victoria|| Late Renaissance|
Famous 16th Century Spanish Composer
and one of the most important composers
of the Counter Reformation
|John Dowland|| Late Renaissance|
English composer famous for his
|Thomas Morley|| Late Renaissance|
English composer. Foremost member of the
English Madrigal School.
|William Byrd|| Late Renaissance|
English Composer of the Renaissance. Styles included
sacred and secular polyphony, keyboard, and
|John Bull|| Late Renaissance|
|musica reservata|| Late Renaissance|
Style or performance practice in a capella
vocal music later half of 16th century
|Harmonice Musices Odhecaton|| Late Renaissance|
anthology of secular songs published by
|Italian Madrigal||Late Renaissance|
|English Madrigal||Late Renaissance|
|Musica Transalpina|| Late Renaissance|
a collection of Italian madrigals fitted with
|Parisian (French) Chanson|| Late Renaissance|
abandoned the formes fixes and
were in a simpler, more homophonic style
|Reformation|| Late Renaissance|
16th-century split within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, et al
In revolt of Roman Catholic Practices and led to Protestant Churches
|Psalter||volume containing the Book of Psalms|
|contrafactum|| Late Renaissance|
the substitution of one text for another
without substantial change to the music
|Counter-Reformation|| Late Renaissance|
period of catholic revival beg. with the Council of Trent
|Variations|| formal technique where material is |
altered during repetition
|Ricercar|| Late Renaissance|
type of late Renaissance and mostly early Baroque instrumental composition
It may explore the permutations of a given motif
|Canzona|| Late Renaissance|
6th-century multipart vocal setting of a literary canzone
and a 16th- and 17th-century instrumental composition
|Toccata|| Late Renaissance|
virtuoso piece of music typically for a keyboard or plucked string instrument
|fantasia|| Late Renaissance|
a free musical composition structured
according to the composer's fancy
|Thomas Tallis|| Late Renaissance|
English Renaissance composer
|Giovanni Gabrielli|| Late Renaissance|
Represents the culmination of the style of the Venetian
School, at the time of the shift from Renaissance to
Baroque idioms. Italian Composer.
|Cori Spezzati|| Late Renaissance|
Separated Choirs in the Venetian polychoral style where
spatially separate choirs singing in alternation
|Sonata pian'e forte||Late Renaissance|
|Florentine Camerata (Florence, Spain)|| Late Renaissance/Baroque 1577-1582|
Group of most famous men in Florence
that gathered to discuss and guide trends
in the arts (music, drama, etc.)
|Giulio Caccini (Italy)|| 1551 - 1618 Baroque|
Italian composer, teacher, singer,
instrumentalist. A Founder of Opera
|Jacopo Peri (Italy)|| 1561-1683 Baroque |
Composer and Singer. Often called the
inventor of opera. Works include Dafne
(1597) and Euridice (1600)
|Vincenzo Galilei (Italy)|| 1520-1591 |
lutenist, composer, and music theorist
Influential in establishment of end of
Renaissance/Beginning of Baroque
|Claudio Monteverdi (Italy)|| Baroque Born 16th Century/Died 1643 |
marked the transition from the Renaissance style of music to that of the Baroque period.
Wrote one of the earliest operas, L'Orfeo
|Francesco Cavalli (Italy)|| 1602 - 1676 Baroque |
Influential in rise of mid-17th century
opera. Used small orchestra of strings
and basso continuo.
|Giacomo Carissimi (Italy)|| Baroque |
Roman School of Music.
|Heinrich Schutz (German)|| 1585 - 1672 Baroque |
Most famous German
composer before J.S. Bach.
|Dietrich Buxtehude (German-Danish)|| Baroque |
Organist and Composer. Represent a
central part of Baroque Organ repertoire.
Influenced J.S. Bach and Others.
|Jean-Baptiste Lully (Italian Born-French)|| 1632-1687 (Baroque) |
French composer. chief master of the
French Baroque style.
|Alessandro Scarlatti (Italy)|| 1660 - 1725 Baroque |
Famous for operas and cantatas. Founder
of Neapolitan school of opera.
|Henry Purcell (English)|| Baroque |
Organist and composer of Baroque
secular music. Unique English Composer.
|Johann Sebastian Bach Vocal (German)|| 1685-1750 Baroque |
Sacred and Secular Works for Choir. Composed Cantatas for every
Sunday and holiday of church year. Also secular cantatas. Large scale
choral-orchestral works: St. Matthew Passion, St. John Passion, etc.
|Jean-Phillipe Rameau (France)|| 1683 - 1764 Baroque |
Composer and Music Theorist. Dominant
composer of French opera. Wrote
Treatise on Harmony (1722)
|George Freidrich Handel (German)|| 1685-1759 Baroque |
Famous for operas, oratorios, anthems, and organ concertos.
Key works: Messiah (1742), Water Music, Music for the Royal Fireworks
|Basso Continuo|| 1600-1750 Baroque |
At least one instrument capable of playing chords must be included. The chord instrument plays indicated bass notes and fills in notes on top of it. (Improvised accompaniment)
|Doctrine of the Affections|| Baroque Era |
One Unified affect(tion) should be aimed
at by a single piece/movement of music.
|intermedio|| Italian Renaissance |
theatrical performance with music performed between
acts of plays to celebrate special occasions.
|madrigal comedy|| Late 16th Century Italy Baroque |
A cappella madrigals sung consecutively, generally
telling a story, important in origins of opera.
|prima prattica|| Baroque |
style from Gioseffo Zarlino that looks like
style of Palestrina. (approaching and
leaving dissonances properly)
|Seconda Prattica|| Baroque |
Distinguished from prima prattica and
encourages more freedom from
limitations on dissonance practices
|Le Nuove Musiche|| Baroque |
Collection of monodies and songs for solo
voice and basso continuo by Giulio Caccini
Written in seconda prattica style.
|Monody|| Baroque |
Solo vocal style distinguished by having a single melodic
line and instrumental accompaniment.
|L'Orfeo|| Baroque |
Baroque opera by Claudio Monteverdi with a libretto
of Orpheus descending to Hades trying to bring back
Eurydice, his dead bride.
|Secular/Sacred Cantata|| baroque |
vocal composition with instrumental
accompaniment, typically in several movements.
Often involving a choir in sacred cantatas.
|Oratorio|| Baroque |
Large Musical composition including an
orchestra, choir, and soloists. Typically
deals with sacred topics and tells a story
|Passion|| Baroque |
Sung musical settings, normally choral, covering
the Passion of Jesus... Singing of the Gospels of the
events leading up to the Crucifixion of Jesus.
|Motet (Baroque)|| Baroque |
Either petits motet or Grand Motets.
Jean-Baptiste Lully was the most
important composer of G.M.'s
|Bel Canto (Italian)|| 17th Century Baroque |
Sophisticated model of "beautiful Singing"
that evolved from operatic and sacred
|Recitativo secco|| Baroque |
Form of Recitative
Accompanied by only continuo
|Recitativo Accompagnato|| Baroque |
Form of recitative using
|arioso|| style of solo opera singing between |
recitative and aria. literally means airy.
|da capo aria|| Baroque |
Musical form sung by a soloist with
instruments. ABA-Ternary Form
|Ground Bass|| Baroque |
Bassline/harmonic pattern is repeated
as the basis of piece underneath variation
|tragedie lyrique|| baroque |
French Opera genre based on stories from
classical mythology. Introduced by JB Lully
|opera-ballet|| baroque |
French opera genre containing more dance
music and various plots open for comedy
|Concertato Style|| Baroque |
genre of music where groups of instruments or voices share a melody
usually in alternation, almost always over basso continuo.
|Traite de l'harmonie|| Baroque|
"Treatise on Harmony" Written by Jean-Philippe Rameau. Describes music and how to write it based on modern
|Girolamo Frescobaldi|| 1583-1643 Baroque |
One of most important composers of keyboard music
in the late Renaissance and Baroque periods.
|Johann Jakob Froberger (German)|| Baroque |
Developed keyboard suite genre. wrote
some earliest examples of program music
|Francois Couperin (French)|| 1668 - 1733 Baroque |
Famous composer, organist
|Archangelo Corelli (Italian)|| 1653 - 1713 Baroque |
Violinist and Composer of
|Giuseppe Torelli|| 1658 - 1709 Baroque |
Contributed to development of the
|Antonio Vivaldi (Italy)|| 1678-1741 Baroque |
One of greatest Baroque composers.
Known especially for his instrumental
concertos, especially violin, & sacred choral
|Dietrich Buxtehude (German-Danish)|| Baroque |
Organist and Composer. His organ
repetoire represent a central part of the
standard organ repetoire.
|Johann Sebastian Bach Instrumental|| 1685-1750 Baroque |
Works Include: Brandenburg Concerto, Well-Tempered Clavier,
Cello Suites, Passacaglia and Fugue in C Minor
|Georg Telemann (German)|| 1681-1767 Baroque |
|prelude and fugue|| Baroque |
prelude before fugue. Fugue consists of
theme passed from voice to voice, etc.
|trio sonata|| baroque |
Music Form written for two solo melodic
instruments and basso continuo.
|sonata da chiesa|| baroque |
generally consists of of four movements. Slow-fast-slow-Fast order.
2nd mvt- fugal allegro. 3rd and 4th resembled sarabande and gigue
|sonata da camera|| baroque |
instrumental pieces set into 3 or 4 movements.
beginning with prelude (small sonata)
|chorale prelude|| Baroque |
short liturgical composition for organ
using a chorale tune as basis.
|concerto grosso|| baroque |
Music Material passed between small
group of soloist and full orchestra
|solo concerto|| baroque |
Musical work in three parts of movements
where one solo instrument is accompanied by orchestra
|ritornello|| Baroque |
recurring passage in baroque music. The first or final movement
|French Overture|| Baroque |
Musical form in two parts. Parts are complimentary
in style and first ends in half-cadence, needing an answer
|Italian Overture|| Baroque |
Piece of orchestral music in three-movements
Structure. Fast-slow-fast order.
|agrements|| Baroque |
French Baroque style of ornamentation.
|Style Brise|| Baroque |
Arpeggiated texture in instrumental Music. Usually
French Baroque Music
|Tablature|| Baroque |
Form of musical notation indicating instrument
fingering rather than musical pitches.
|temperament|| System of tuning which slightly compromises the pure |
intervals of 'just intonation' to meet other requirements
of the system
|ricercar|| baroque |
Instrumental composition that "searches
out" the key or mode of a following piece.
|Canzona|| baroque |
multipart vocal setting of a literary
canzone and a 16/17th century
|chaconne|| baroque |
type of musical composition in which variation on a
repeated short harmonic progression, often involving a
|passacaglia|| baroque |
Usually written in triple meter based on
bass ostinato in serious character.
|suite|| Ordered set of instrumental or orchestral pieces. |
normally performed in a concert setting rather than as
an accompaniment, and may be extracts from a play,
opera, ballet, etc.
|toccata|| baroque |
virtuosic piece of music usually for a
keyboard or plucked string instrument.
features fast-moving, lightly fingered
virtuosic passages and sections.
|Domenico Scarlatti (Italy)|| 1685-1757 Classical |
Composer Influential in classical style.
Mainly known for many keyboard sonatas.
|North German School|| Classical |
Popular organ school in the 17th century
|C.P.E. Bach (German)|| Classical |
musician and composer. A founder of classical style
composing in the Rococo and Classical Periods.
|Giovanni Sammartini (Italy)|| 18th Century Classical |
Teacher of Gluck and Highly regarded by
J.C. Bach. Oranist and Composer. Influnetial in
formation of concert symphony.
|Mannheim School|| Classical |
both orchestral techniques pioneered by the court
orchestra of Mannheim, as well as composers who wrote
music for that orchestra.
|Johann Stamitz (Czech)|| Classical |
Composer and violinist. Music reflects the
transition of the baroque period to the
|Viennese School|| Classical |
School of teaching/style of Mozart, Haydn
|J.C. Bach (German)|| 1735-1782 Classical |
Influenced concerto style of Mozart. Important
|Giovanni Pergolesi (Italy)|| One of most important composers of |
opera buffa (comic opera). Also wrote
|Jean-Jacques Rousseau|| 1712-1778 Classical |
Genevan phliospher, writer
and composer of 18th
|Gay and Pepusch|| 1728 Classical |
Writter and Arranger of The Beggar's Opera, an example
of a opera genre called satirical ballad opera. These type
of operas are without recitative and are meant to shame
audiences/society into improvement, usually comically.
|Cristoph Willibald Gluck|| 1714-1787 Classical |
Famous opera composer. Wanted to return opera to focusing on
human drama and passions and making words and music of equal
importance. Writer of Don Juan and Orfeo ed Euridice.
|W. A. Mozart|| 1756-1791 Classical |
One of most important composers of classical period. He composed
operas, concertos, string quartets, symphonies, and piano sonatas.
|Lorenzo da Ponte|| 1749-1838 Classical |
Venetian Opera Librettist. Wrote text for such operas as
Don Giovanni, The Marriage of Figaro, and Cosi fan tutte
|F.J. Haydn|| 1732-1809 Classical |
Made important contributions to symphony and the
string quartet. Court musician for the Esterhazy family.
Was a close friend of Mozart and a teacher of Beethoven.
|Muzio Clementi|| 1752-1832 Classical |
Best known for piano sonatas and collection of piano studies, Gradus
ad Parnassum. Had influence on Beethoven.
|Ludwig van Beethoven|| 1770-1827 Classical and Romantic |
Crucial in transition from Classical to Romantic Period. Studied with Haydn. Gradually
went deaf. Wrote 9 symphonies, Eroica, Piano sonatas, a single opera, etc.
|Enlightenment|| 18th Century |
Intellectuals sought to mobilize the power
of reason to advance society/knowledge.
Important figures include Newton, John
Locke, Voltaire, et al.
|Rococo|| 18th Century Late Baroque |
Artistic movement and style as a reaction against the
symmetry and strict regulations of the Baroque. Import-
ant figures include Jean Philippe Rameau and Daquin.
|Style galant|| 1720s-1770s Classical |
Simplified contrapuntal style and became more melody
driven as opposed to pattern/counterpoint driven.
|empfindsamer Stil|| 18th Century Classical |
Developed in Germany. Style of music
inteded to express "true/natural" feelings
|Sturm and Drang|| 1760s-1780s Classical |
Storm and Stress. Emotional extremes
given free expression
|Sonata (Classical)||Exposition, Development, Recap|
|Symphony|| Scored almost always for orchestra. Often tonal works |
in four movements with the first in sonata form.
|Classical orchestra|| About 45 players. |
It standardized instrumentation.
|divertimento|| 18th Century Classical |
Generally lighthearted & for small ensemble
|string quartet|| 18th Century |
Ensemble of 4 string players or piece
written for such a group.
|Binary Form||A-Repeat, B-Repeat (AABB)|
|Ternary Form||ABA Form|
|minuet and trio|| Social dance of French origin usually in 3/4 time. Usually |
2nd or 3rd movement in a symphony.
|scherzo|| would replace minuet in multimovement |
work and would be much quicker in tempo
|Rondo|| Like baroque ritornello, constant return of |
|Sonata Rondo|| ABACABA-with C being extended and |
|theme and variations||Music material is repeated in altered form|
|opera comique|| opera that contains spoken dialogue and arias. Not always |
lighthearted. A famous example is Carmen.
|Singspiel|| Genre of opera with spoken dialogue, alternated with |
ensembles, songs, ballads, arias that were often
strophic or folk'like.
|Ballad opera|| 18th century Classical |
Satirical spoken dialogue interspersed with songs.
|Franz Schubert (Austrian)|| 1797-1828 Romantic |
Romantic Composer. Wrote 9 symphonies
including "Unfinished symphony."
|Felix Mendelssohn (German)|| 1809-1847 Romantic |
Romantic composer, pianist, organist, and conductor.
Works: A Midsummer Night's Dream, Italian Symphony
|Hector Berlioz (French)|| 1803-1869 Romantic |
Best known for Symphonie Fantastique & significant contributions
to modern orchestra with his Treatis on Instrumentation
|Robert Schumann (German)|| 1810-1856 Romantic |
Romantic Composer. Wrote 4 symphonies
Attempted suicide. Placed in mental
Institution at own request.
|John Field (Irish)|| Romantic composer |
Studied under Clementi.
Best known for originating the piano
nocturne. These influenced Chopin
|Frederic Chopin (Polish)|| 1810-1849 Romantic |
Composer and Piano Virtuoso. Made innovations to
to pieces and wrote important piano literature. The
pieces are often techinically demanding.
|Franz Liszt Hungarian|| 1811-1886 Romantic |
Composer and Virtuoso Pianist. Invented the symphonic
poem. Strongly influenced by Berlioz and Paganini.
|Johannes Brahms (German)|| 1833-1897 Romantic |
Strongly influenced by Beethoven. Wrote 4
symphonies. Bold in exploration of
harmony and rhythnm.
|Anton Bruckner (Austrian)|| 1824-1896 Romantic |
Important in defining Austro-German Romanticism. His
pieces consisted of new dissonances, unprepared
modulations, and rich harmonies.
|Antonin Dvorak (Czech)|| 1841-1904 Romantic |
Employed idioms of folk music of Moravia and his native
Bohemia. Known for nationist views. Popular works
include New World Symphony, "American" String Quartet
|Peter Tchaikovsky|| 1840-1893 Romantic |
Wrote popular concert and theatrical
music: Swan Lake, The Sleeping Beauty,
|Cesar Franck|| 1822-1890 Romantic |
Composer, Pianist, and Organist known
for his improvisation.
|Gioacchino Rossini (Italian)|| 1792-1868 Romantic |
Best known for operas that include: II barbier di Siviglia
(The Barber of Seville), Guillaume Tell (William Tell), etc.
|Vincenzo Bellini|| 1801-1835 Romantic |
Known for his long-flowing melodic lines. He is the
quintessential composer of bel canto opera.
|Gaetano Donizetti|| 1797-1848 Romantic |
A leading composer of bel canto opera.
Works: Don Pasquale, Lucia di Lammermor
|Giuseppe Verdi|| 1813-1901 Romantic |
Mainly opera composer. Writer of Rigolletto, he is one
of the most influential composers of the 19th century.
Used musical theater as a politcal tool.
|Carl Maria von Weber (German)|| 1786-1826 Romantic |
One of first significant composers of the
Romantic school. Wrote Der Freischutz, regarded
as the 1st German "nationalist" opera.
|Richard Wagner (German)|| 1813-1883 Romantic |
Known for operas. Compositions known for complex texture, rich harmonies, and
orchestration, and use of leitmotifs. Who wrote both music and libretto. Works:
Ride of the Valkyries from Die Walkure, Wedding March (Bridal Chorus) from Lohengrin
|Giacomo Meyerbeer (German)|| 1791-1864 Romantic |
Opera composer and first great exponent
of "grand opera."
|Georges Bizet (French)|| 1838-1875 Romantic |
Mainly operatic composer. Most well
known for writing Carmen.
|cyclic form|| A theme, melody, or thematic material occurs in more |
than one movement as a unifying device.
|absolute music|| Music strictly for music's sake; not intended to have a |
specific meaning or be strictly "about" anything.
|program music|| Attempts to musically render an extra- |
musical narrative or idea.
|thematic transformation|| Leitmotif/Theme is developed by changing the theme by |
permutation (transposition, modulation, et. al)
|tone (symphonic) poem|| piece of orchestral music in a movement in which |
content of a non-musical idea or story is illustrated.
|Lied (German)||German "song"|
|ballad||Often a narrative set to music.|
|Song cycle|| Group of songs designed to be performed in a sequence |
as a single entity, and unified by a narrative or common persona
|character piece|| Romantic |
Piece designed to evoke a character, mood
or moment. Exp: Schumann's Carnaval
|grand opera|| 19th century Romantic |
Opera Genre generally in 4 or 5 acts. Have
spectactular design and stage effects and
noramlly with plots on historic events.
|Opera Comique|| 1807-1902 Romantic |
Theatre in London well known for hosting several of
early Gilbert and Sullivan operas.
|Opera Lyrique|| Romantic |
Less grandiose than grand opera, but
w/out spoken dialoque of opera comique
|Gesamtkunstwerk|| Romantic |
Work of art that makes use of all or many art forms. Wagner known
for use and implementation.
|Leitmotiv|| Romantic |
Recurring them, associated with a
particular person, place, or idea.
|Romantic orchestra|| Greatly larger than the classical orchestra |
and features advances in instrumentation.
|Hugo Wolf (Austrian)|| 1860-1903 Late Romantic |
Well known for his lieder songs.
|Gustav Mahler Austrian|| 1860-1911 Late Romantic |
Composer and leading conductor of his generation.
Was a bridge between romantic and modern style.
|Richard Strauss (German)|| 1864-1949 Late Romantic/Early Modern |
Known for operas such as Salome and
|Mikhail Glinka|| 1804-1857 Romantic Nationalism |
Influenced future Russian composers and produced
distinct Russian style. His Patriotic Song became anthem
|The Mighty Handful (The Five)|| 1856-1870 |
Also known as "The Five." A circle of composers that met
with the aim to produce a Russian kind of art music, as
opposed to imitated older European music.
|Modest Mussorgsky (Russian)|| 1839-1881 Late Romantic/Nationalist |
One of "The Five." Innovator of Russian music. Strove to
achieve unique Russian musical identity. Music
inspired by Russian history, folklore, and themes.
|Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov (Russian)|| 1844-1908 Late Romantic/Nationalist |
Member of "The Five." Master of orchestration.
Nationalist. Pieces include Scheherazade, Capriccio
Espagnol, Russian Easter Festival Overture.
|Alexander Scriabin|| 1872-1915 Late Romantic/Modern |
Developed an increasingly atonal musical system,
presaging twelve-tone composition and other serialism.
|Bedrich Smetana (Czech)|| 1824-1884 Late Romantic/Nationalist |
Known as the father of Czech music.
(Developed Czech musical style).
|Leos Janacek|| 1854-1928 Late Romantic/Nationalist |
Devoted to creating a unique modern
musical style. Inspired by folk music.
|Edvard Grieg (Norwegian)|| 1843-1907 Late Romantic |
Composer and Pianist. Best known for his Piano
Concerto in A minor, and incidental music to Peer Gynt
|Jean Sibelius (Finnish)|| 1865-1957 Late Romantic/Nationalist |
Important role in formation of Finnish
|Edward Elgar (English)|| 1857-1934 Late Romantic |
Best known works include Enigma Variations, Pomp &
Circumstance Marches, The Dream of Gerontius.
|Manuel de Falla (Spanish Andalusian)|| 1876-1946 Late Romantic |
One of Spain's most important composers of the first
half of the 20th century.
|Camille Saint-Saens (French)|| 1835-1921 Late Romantic |
Composer, organist, conductor, pianist.
|Gabriel Faure (French)|| 1845-1924 Late Romantic/Modern |
Important 20th Century French composer. Best known
for his Nocturnes for piano, Clair de lune. Taught by
|Giacomo Puccini (Italian)|| 1858-1924 Late Romantic |
Operas among most frequently performed which include
La boheme, Tosca, Madama Butterfly, Turandot.
|verismo|| 1875-1900s Late Romantic |
Italian literary movement and was associated with
post-romatic operatic tradition.
|Claude Debussy (French)|| 1862-1918 Impressionist |
Most prominent impressionist. Music noted for its
sensory component and for not forming around on key
|Maurice Ravel (French)|| 1875-1937 (Twentieth Century) |
Known especially for his melodies, orchestral and
instrumental textures and effects. Works include Bolero,
Jeux d'eau Miroirs, Le tombeau de Couperin, etc.
|Erik Satie (French)|| 1866-1925 20th Century |
Precursor to minimalist movement
Colourful figure in the early 20th century
|Les six francais|| 1920s |
Group of six composers working in France
whose music was often seen as a reaction
against Wagner's style and impressionism
|Darius Milhaud (French)|| 1892-1974 20th Century |
Member of Les Six. One of most prolific
composers of 20th century. Influenced by
jazz and makes use of polytonality.
|Arthur Honegger (Swiss)|| 1892-1955 20th Century |
Member of Les Six. Most popular piece is
probably Pacific 231, which attempts to
imitate the sound of a steam locomotive.
|Francis Poulenc (French)|| 1899-1963 20th Century |
Member of Les Six. Composed solo piano
music, oratorio, choral music, opera,
balllet music, and orcherstral music.
|Gustav Holst (English)|| 1874-1934 20th Century |
Most well known for The Planets. His work
influenced Wagner, Strauss, and fellow
student Ralph Vaughan Williams.
|Ralph Vaughn Williams (Eng|| 1872-1958 20th Century |
English composer of
music, opera, choral music,
and film scores.
|Bela Bartok (Hungarian)|| 1881-1945 20th Century |
Top 20th Century composer and important Hungary
composer. Considered a founder of ethnomusicology.
|Zoltan Kodaly (Hungarian)|| 1882-1967 20th Century |
Composer and ethnomusicologist. Known for Kodaly
Method, an approach to music education.
|Carl Orff (German)|| 1895-1982 20th Century |
Composer. Best known for cantata Carmina Burana.
Developed influential method of musican ed for children
|Benjamin Britten (English)|| 1913-1976 20th Century |
Composer, Conductor, and Pianist.
Central figure of 20th Century British
Classical music. Wrote Peter Grimes opera
|Gian-Carlo Menotti (Italian-American)|| 1911-2007 20th Century |
Composer and Librettist. Wrote the Christmas
opera Amahl and the Night Vistors
|Sergei Prokofiev (Russian)|| 1891-1953 20th Century |
Composer, pianist, and conductor. Mastered numerous
musical genres. Works: Peter and the Wolf, Romeo and Juliet (ballad),
Love for Three Oranges, Lieutant Kije (suite)
|Dimitri Shostakovich (Russian)|| 1906-1975 20th Century |
Soviet Russian composer. Developed a
hybrid style influenced by Prokofiev and
Stravinskiy, heard in Lady Macbeth...
|Charles Ives (American)|| 1874-1954 20th Century |
One of first internationally renown American composers
Experimented with polytonality, polyrhythm, and tone
clusters, foreshadowing atonality and 20th century
|Arnold Schoenberg (Austrian)|| 1874-1951 20th Century |
Associated with expressionist movement
Leader of Second Viennese School.
Developed 12-tone technique (pioneer of atonality).
|Alban Berg (Austrian)|| 1885-1935 20th Century |
Member of Second Viennese School. Pioneer of atonality
Writer of Wozzeck opera.
|Anton Webern (Austrian)|| 1883-1945 20th Century |
Composer and Conductor. Member of Second Viennese
school. A Best-known exponent of 12-tone technique.
His work later became known as total serialism.
|Paul Hindemith (German)|| Composer, violinist, theorist, and conductor. Created |
his own musical system that is tonal but not-diatonic.
Most famous work is Symphonic Metmamorphosis of
Themes by Carl Maria von Weber.
|Igor Stravinsky (Russian)|| 1882-1971 20th Century |
Composer, Pianist, and Conductor. One of the most inflential composers of 20th
century. Ballets include The Firebird, Petrushka, and the riot provoking The Rite of
|Aaron Copeland (American)|| 1900-1990 20th Century |
Instrumental in forging distinct American Style of
composition. Works include: Appalachian Spring, Billy
the Kid, Rodeo, Fanfare for the Common Man.
|Elliot Carter (American)|| B. 1908 (20th Century) |
Studied with Nadia Boulanger. Style
has included neoclassical and atonal
pieces. Has been performed worldwide.
|Virgil Thomson (American)|| 1896-1989 20th Century |
Instrumental in development of
"American Sound." Desribed as modernist
|Iannis Xenakis (French Composer)|| 1922-2001 20th Century |
Pioneered use of mathematical models in music and
influencial in development of electronic music.
|Olivier Messiaen (French)|| 1908-1992 20th Century |
Music was rhythmically complex. Experimented with
parametrisation, associated with "total serialism."
Many exotic influences in his music.
|Pierre Boulez (French)|| B. 1925 20th Century |
Developed integral serialism.
|Karlheinz Stockhausen (German)|| 1928-2007 20th and 21st Centuries |
Most important and controversial composers of 20th
and 21st centuries. Known for electronic music, aleatory
(controlled chance) in serial composition, and musical spatialization.
|Edgar Varese (French and American)|| 1883-1965 20th Century |
Music emphasizes timbre and rhythm.
Inventor of the term "organized sound."
Known as the "Father of Electronic Music."
|Milton Babbitt (American)|| 1916-2011 20th Century |
Noted for serial and electronic music.
|John Cage (American)|| 1912-1992 20th Century |
Pioneer of indeterminacy in music, electroacoustic music, and
non-standard use of musical instruments. 4'33.
|Luciano Berio (Italian)|| 1925-2003 20th Century |
Noted for experimental work (Sinfonia
for voices and orchestra) and pioneering
work in electronic music.
|George Crumb (American)|| B. 1929 20th Century |
Composer of contemporary classical music.
Noted as explorer of unusual timbres, alternative forms
of notation, & extended instrumental/vocal techniques
|Gyorgy Ligeti|| 1923-2006 20th Century |
Composer of contemporary classical
|Krzysztof Penderecki (Polish)|| B. 1933 20th Century |
Avant-garde Threnody to the Victims of
Hiroshima brought him international
attention. Later encompassed post-Romantic idiom.
|Steve Reich (American)|| B. 1936 20th Century |
Minimalist. Innovations include tape
loops for phasing patterns, and use of
simple, audible processes.
|Terry Riley (American)|| B. 1935 20th Century |
Minimalist. Work deeply influenced by
jazz and indian classical music.
|Philip Glass (American)|| B. 1937 20th Century |
Minimalist. Very influential in the 20th Century
|impressionism|| European classical music in the late 19th Century and through middle |
of 20th century. Composered favored short music forms such as
nocturne, and prelude, and uncommon scales and devices such as
whole-tone scales and extended harmonies.
|expressionism|| Beginning of 20th Century |
Composers used atonality and serialism to free themselves
from traditional tonality (and express freely).
|neo-classicism|| Western movements that drew inspiration from |
"classical" art. In music, was a response to German Modernism
as composers claimed mankind is inherently "diatonic" and 'tonal"
|Atonality|| 20th Century |
Music that lacks a tonal center, or key.
|dodecaphony|| 20th Century |
12-tone technique- Ensures all 12 notes in the chromatic
scale sound as often as another in a piece of music through
use of 12 tone rows.
|Serialism|| 20th Century |
Technique that uses a series of values to manipulate
different musical elements.
|Sprechstimme|| 20th Century |
Expressionist vocal technique between singing and speaking. Close
to speech because it does not emphasise any particular pitches.
|Klangfarbenmelodie|| 20th Century |
Technique that involves distributing a melody to
several instruments, rather than to just one instrument
|Polytonality|| 20th Century |
Use of more than one key simultaneously.
|pandiatonicism|| 20th Century |
Technique of using the diatonic scale without the limitation
of functional tonality.
|Primitivism|| 20th Century |
Borrows ideas form prehistoric peoples.
|Musique Concrete|| 20th Century |
Form of electroacoustic music that utilities acousmatic sound as a compositional resource.
|electronic music|| 20th Century |
Music that employs electronic musical instruments
and electronic music technology.
|Gebrauchsmusik|| 20th Century |
Music composed for some
|indeterminacy|| 20th Century |
Aleotoric music, which is music chosen
by chance. For example, pitches and key
may be chosen, but the rhythms may be
selected by chance.
|Minimalism|| 20th Century |
Work is set out to expose the essence, essentials
or identity of a subject through eliminating all
non-essential forms, features, or concepts.