Science8H Final Vocab

85 terms by christina2468

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science

the knowledge obtained by observing natural events and conditions in order to discover facts and formulate laws or principles that can be verified or tested

scientific methods

the ways in which scientists answer questions and solve problems

observation

the process of obtaining information by using the senses

hypothesis

a testable idea or explanation that leads to scientific investigation

data

any pieces of information acquired through observation or experimentation

first aid

emergency medical care for someone who has been hurt or is sick

mass

a measure of the amount of matter in an object

volume

a measure of the size of an object or region in three-dimensional space

density

the ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of the substance

temperature

a measure of how hot (or cold) something is; specifically, a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object

model

a representation of an object or system

theory

an explanation for many hypotheses and observations

law

a summary of many experimental results and observations

independent variable

in an experiment, the factor that is deliberately manipulated (changed)

dependent variable

in an experiment, the factor that changes in response to the independent variable

axis

a reference line that forms one side of a graph

mean

the number obtained by adding up the data for a given characteristic and dividing this sum by the number of individuals

median

the value of the middle item when data are arraned in order by size

mode

the most frequently occuring value in a data set

slope

a measure of the slant of a line; the ratio of rise over run

matter

anything that has mass and takes up space

volume

a measure of the size of a body or region in a three-dimensional space

meniscus

the curve at a liquid's surface by which one measures the volume of the liquid

mass

a measure of the amount of matter in an object

weight

a measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object; its value can change with the location of the object in the universe

physical property

a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the matter's identity

density

the amount of matter in a given space or volume; the ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of the substance

physical change

a change of matter from one form to another without a change in chemical properties

chemical property

a property of matter that describes a substance's ability to participate in chemical reactions

chemical change

a change that occurs when one or more substances change into entirely new substances with different properties

states of matter

the physical forms of matter, which include solid, liquid, and gas

solid

the state of matter in which the volume and shape of a substance are fixed

liquid

the state of matter that has a definite volume but not a definite shape

gas

a form of matter that does not have a definite volume or shape

plasma

in physical science, a state of matter that starts as a gas and then becomes ionized; it consists of free-moving ions and electrons, it takes on an electric charge, and its properties differ from the properties of a solid, liquid, or gas; the state of matter that does not have a definite shape or volume and whose particles have broken apart

change of state

the change of a substance from one physical state to another

melting

the change of state in which a solid becomes a liquid by adding heat

evaporation

the change of state from a liquid to a gas

boiling

the conversion of a liquid to a vapor when the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the atmospheric pressure

condensation

the change of state from a gas to a liquid

sublimation

the process in which a solid changes directy into a gas

element

a substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means

pure substance

a sample of matter, either a single element or a single compound, that has definite chemical and physical properties

metal

an element that is shiny and that conducts heat and electricity well

nonmetal

an element that conducts heat and electricity poorly

metalloid

an element that has properties of both metals and nonmetals

compound

a substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds

mixture

a combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined

solution

a homogeneous mixture throughout which two or more substances are uniformally dispersed

solute

in a solution, the substance that dissolves in a solvent

solvent

in a solution, the substance in which a solute dissolves

concentration

the amount of a particular substance in a given quantity of a mixture, solution, or ore

solubility

the ability of one substance to dissolve in another at a given temperature and pressure

atom

the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element

electron

a subatomic particle that has a negative charge

nucleus

in physical science, an atoms central region, which is made up of protons and neutrons

electron cloud

a region around the nucleus of an atom where electrons are likely to be found

proton

a subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is located in the nucleus of an atom; the number of protons in the nucleus is the atomic number, which determines the identity of an element

atomic mass unit

a unit of mass that describes the mass of an atom or molecule

neutron

a subatomic particle that has no charge and that is located in the nucleus of an atom

atomic number

the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; the atomic number is the same for all atoms of an element

isotope

an atom that has the same number of protons (or the same atomic number) as other atoms of the same element do but that has a different number of neutrons (and thus a different atomic mass)

mass number

the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

atomic mass

the mass of an atom expressed in atomic mass units

motion

an object's change in position relative to a reference point

average speed

the total distance traveled divided by (over)the total time taken

velocity

the speed of an object in a particular direction

acceleration

the rate at which velocity changes overtime; an object accelerates if its speed, direction, or both change

force

a push or a pull exerted on an object in order to change the motion of the object; force has size and direction

newton

SI unit for force (N)

net force

the combination of all the forces acting on an object

friction

the force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are in contact

gravity

a force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses

weight

a measure of the gravitational force on an object; its value can change with the location of the object in the universe

mass

a measure of the amount of matter in an object

terminal velocity

the constant velocity of a falling object when the force of air resistance is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force of gravity

free fall

the motion of a body when only the force of gravity is acting on the body

projectile motion

the curved path that an object follows when thrown, launched, or otherwise projected near the surface of Earth

inertia

the tendency of an object to resist being moved or, if the object is moving, to resist a change in speed or direction until an outside force acts on the object

fluid

a nonsolid state of matter in which the atoms or molecules are free to move past each other, as in a gas or liquid

pressure

the amount of force exerted per unit area of a surface

pascal

the SI unit of pressure (Pa)

atmospheric pressure

the pressure caused by the weight of the atmosphere

buoyant force

the upward force that keeps an object immersed in or floating on a liquid

Archimedes' principle

the principle that states that the buoyant force of an object in a fluid is an upward force equal to the weight of the volume of fluid that the object displaces

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