9th Grade Physical Science Final Exam

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Barneveld 9th grade science final terms

Galaxy

a group of individual stars, star systems, star clusters, dust and gas bound together by gravity

Supernova

an explosion so violent that the dying star becomes more brilliant than the entire galaxy

Star

a large glowing ball of gas in space which generate energy through nuclear fusion in its core

constellation

a group of stars that appear to form a pattern

Pulsar

a spinning neutron star that appears to give off strong pulses of radio waves

Globular cluster

a large group of older stars that usually lack sufficient amounts of gas and dust to form new stars

nuclear fusion

The way all stars produce energy the same way

blue star

the hottest stars which are 30,000 K.

cooler

The temperature of older stars

What determines whether a star will form a black hole or a neutron star?

the mass and density of the star during its death

How are other galaxies moving in relationship to our galaxy?

They are moving away from our galaxy

The Big Bang Theory

The most accepted theory of the origin of the universe?

In the Big Bang theory, the universe's beginning size

the universe began with a small amount of matter smaller than the period at the end of this sentence.

Age of the universe

13.7 billion years old

Explains the expansion of the universe

the Big Bang theory

hydrogen

the original material (element) in the Big Bang theory

What is happening to the size of the universe?

It is getting bigger

knowledge of the universe

scientists have a good idea -- but with further study that idea may change

Life cycle of the average star (like our Sun)

nebula -- protostar -- main sequence star -- red giant -- planetary nebula -- white dwarf -- Black dwarf

A star ends its life as what?

A neutron star, a black hole, or a dwarf star

what is the possible lifecycle of a super giant star?

Supergiant -- supernova -- neutron star or black hole

Black hole

a region of space containing so much matter that it collapses into an infinitely dense point.

Neutron star

the dense remnant of a high mass star that has exploded as a supernova which are smaller and denser than white dwarfs.

White Dwarf star

a star about the size of the Earth that has about the same mass of the Sun.

Black dwarf star

a white dwarf that becomes too cool to glow in visible light

Planetary nebula

the glowing cloud of gas that surrounds a dying star

Protostar

a contracting cloud of gas and dust with enough mass to form a star

Nebula

a large cloud of gas and dust spread out over a large volume of space

Dark matter

matter that does not give off radiation. It cannot be seen directly, but its presence can be detected by observing its gravitational effects on visible matter

Geo

means earth

Helio

means sun

Ecliptic plane

is an imaginary plane containing the Earth's orbit

Moon

is a relatively small natural body in space that revolves around a planet

astronomical units (AU

Distance from the sun is measured

Maria

are low (dark), flat plains formed by ancient lunar lava flows.

Meteoroids

are chunks of rock that move through the solar system.

phases

The different shapes of the moon visible from Earth

Waxing

opening

Waning

closing

eclipse

the shadow of one body in space, like a planet or moon, falls on another.

Umbra

darkest part of the moon's shadow

Penumbra

a region of shadow that is less dark than umbra.

Tides

the regular rise and fall of ocean waters

terrestrial planets

are planets similar in structure to Earth

Kuiper belt

is a wide belt that extends from Pluto's orbit out to about 100 AU or more from the sun.

Reactant

a substance or molecule that participates in a chemical reaction

Product

a substance that forms in a chemical reaction

Chemical energy

the energy released when a chemical compound reacts to produce new compounds

Exothermic reaction

a chemical reaction in which energy is released to the surroundings as heat

Endothermic reaction

a chemical reaction that requires energy input

Chemical equation

a representation of a chemical reaction that uses symbols to show the relationship between the reactants and products

Mole ratio

the relative number of moles of the substances required to produce a given amount of product in a chemical reaction

Synthesis reaction

a reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a new compound

Decomposition reaction

a reaction in which a single compound breaks down to form two or more simpler substances

Combustion reaction

the oxidation reaction of an organic compound in which heat is released

Single-displacement reaction

a reaction in which one element or radical takes the place of another element or radical in a compound

Double-displacement reaction

a reaction in which a gas, a solid precipitate, or a molecular compound forms from the apparent exchange of atoms or ions between two compounds

Free radical

an atom or a group of atoms that has one unpaired electron

Oxidation-reduction reaction

any chemical change in which one species is oxidized (loses electrons) and another species is reduced (gains electrons)

Catalyst

a substance that changes the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed or changed significantly

Enzyme

a type of protein that speeds up metabolic reaction in plants and animals without being permanently changed or destroyed

Substrate

the reactant in reactions catalyzed by enzymes

Chemical equilibrium

a state of balance in which the rate of a forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction and the concentrations of products and reactants remain unchanged

periodic table

arrangement of elements in columns, based on a set of properties that repeat from row to row

law of octaves

repeating pattern of properties for every eighth element

group

up and down column on the periodic table

period

each row of the periodic table

periodic law

pattern of repeating properties that occurs in the periodic table

atomic mass

the weighted average of the masses of the isotopes of an element

atomic mass unit

one-twelfth the mass of a carbon-12 atom

metals

left of the zigzag line, shiny, malleable, ductile, good conductors of electric current, good conductors of thermal energy

nonmetals

elements that are usually dull in appearance, poor conductors of heat and electricity, gases at room temperature

metalloids

elements with properties that fall between those of metals and nonmetals

valence electron

electrons that occupy the outermost energy level, (highest energy level)

alkali metals

Group 1A elements that are extremely reactive and contain one valence electron

alkaline earth elements

Group 2A elements that very reactive and have two valence electrons

halogen-

a nonmetal in group 7A of the periodic table - most reactive nonmetal group

noble gases

one of the unreactive elements of group 18 of the periodic table

transition metals

elements that form a bridge between the elements on the left and right side of the periodic table

Dalton's Theory

Theorey that states that all matter is made up of indivisual particles called atoms, which cannot be divided.

Nucleas

A dense, positively charged mass located in the center of the atom.

Proton

A positively charged subatomic particle that is found in the nucleas of an atom.

Electron

A negatively charged subatomic particle that is found in the space outside the nucleas.

Neutron

A neutral subatomic particle that is found in the nucleas of an atom.

Atomic Number

Equals the number of protons in an atom of that element

Mass Number

The sum of the protons and netrons in the nucleas of that atom.

Isotopes

Atoms of the same element that have diffrent number of neutrons and diffrent mass numbers.

Energy Levels

The possible energies that electrons in an atom can have.

Electron Cloud

A visual model of the most likely locations for electrons in an atom.

Electron Configuration

The arrangement of electrons in an atom.

Ground State

When all the electrons in an atom have the lowest possible energies.

Rutherford's Atomic Theory

all of an atom's mass is concentrated in its nucleus

Thompson's Model of the Atom

Called the 'plum pudding' model. The atom is a lump of positively charged material with negatively charged electrons scattered in it.

Dalton's Theory:

1. All elements are composed of atoms
2. All atoms of the same element have the same mass
3.Compounds contain atoms of more than one element
4.In a particular compound, atoms of diffrent elements always combine in the same way.

Subatomic Particles

protons, neutrons, and electrons

Equation to find the number of nuetrons:

Number of neutrons = Mass number - Atomic Number.

Bohr's Model

the atom is like the solar system and the planets orbiting the sun

Solid

A state of matter in which materials have a definite shape and definite volume

Liquid

A state of matter in which a material has a definite volume but not a definite shape

Gases

A state of matter in which a material does not have a definite shape or volume

Kinetic Energy

Energy of an object due to a motion.

Kinetic Theory

The constant motion of particles in a gas allows a gas to fill a container of any shape or size

Pressure

The result of a force distributed over an area

Absolute Zero

A temperature of 0 K

Charles's Law

The volume of a gas is directly proportional to its temperature in kelvins if the pressure and the number of particles of the gas are constant

Boyle's Law

The volume of a gas in inversely proportional to its pressure if the temperature and the number of particls are constant

Combined Gas Law

The relationship among the temperature, volume, and pressure of a gas when the number of particles are constant

Phase Change

The reversible physical change that occurs when a substance changes from one state of matter to antoher

Endothermic Change

The system absorbs energy from its surroundings

Fusion

Melting

Evaporation

Liquid to gas at temperatures below the substances boiling point

Exothermic Change

The system releases engery to its surroundings

Vaporization

Liquid to gas

Condensation

The phase change in which a substance changes froma gas or vapor to a liquid

Sublimation

The phase change in which a substance changes from a solid to a gas or vapor

Deposition

When gas or vapor changes directly into a solid without first changing into a liquid

Atom

The smallest particle of an element.

Boiling Point

Temperature at which a substance changes from liquid to gas.

Chemical Change

Occurs when a substance reacts with another substance forming one or more new substances.

Chemical Property

An ability to produce a change in the composition of matter.

Colloid

Contains some particles that are intermediate in size between the small particles in a solution and the larger particles in a suspension.

Compound

A substance that is made from two or more simpler substances and can be broken down into those simpler substances.

Conductivity

Ability of a material to allow heat and electricity to flow.

Distillation

Process that separates the substances in a solution based on their boiling points.

Element

A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances.

Filtration

A process that separates materials based on the size of their particles.

Flammability

Ability of a material to burn in the presence of oxygen.

Heterogeneous Mixture

The parts of the mixture are noticeably different from one another.

Homogeneous Mixture

The substances are so evenly distributed that it is difficult to distinguish one substance in the mixture from another.

Malleability

Ability of a solid to be hammered without shattering.

Melting Point

Temperature at which as substance changes from solid to liquid.

Physical Change

When a substance undergoes a change of state and/or shape, but the chemical properties remain the same.

Physical Property

Any characteristic of a material that can be observed or measured without changing the composition of the substance.

Precipitate

Any solid that forms and separates from a liquid mixture.

Pure Substance

Matter that always has the same composition.

Reactivity

How readily a substance combines chemically with other substances.

Solution

When substances dissolve and form a homogeneous mixture.

Suspension

A heterogeneous mixture that separates into layers over time.

Viscosity

The resistance to flow...thickness of a liquid.

Mixture

Properties can vary because the composition is not fixed.

Hardness

The resistance of a mineral to scratching.

Density

The ratio of the mass of a substance to its volume.

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