a group of individual stars, star systems, star clusters, dust and gas bound together by gravity
an explosion so violent that the dying star becomes more brilliant than the entire galaxy
a large glowing ball of gas in space which generate energy through nuclear fusion in its core
a group of stars that appear to form a pattern
a spinning neutron star that appears to give off strong pulses of radio waves
a large group of older stars that usually lack sufficient amounts of gas and dust to form new stars
The way all stars produce energy the same way
the hottest stars which are 30,000 K.
The temperature of older stars
What determines whether a star will form a black hole or a neutron star?
the mass and density of the star during its death
How are other galaxies moving in relationship to our galaxy?
They are moving away from our galaxy
The Big Bang Theory
The most accepted theory of the origin of the universe?
In the Big Bang theory, the universe's beginning size
the universe began with a small amount of matter smaller than the period at the end of this sentence.
Age of the universe
13.7 billion years old
Explains the expansion of the universe
the Big Bang theory
the original material (element) in the Big Bang theory
What is happening to the size of the universe?
It is getting bigger
knowledge of the universe
scientists have a good idea -- but with further study that idea may change
Life cycle of the average star (like our Sun)
nebula -- protostar -- main sequence star -- red giant -- planetary nebula -- white dwarf -- Black dwarf
A star ends its life as what?
A neutron star, a black hole, or a dwarf star
what is the possible lifecycle of a super giant star?
Supergiant -- supernova -- neutron star or black hole
a region of space containing so much matter that it collapses into an infinitely dense point.
the dense remnant of a high mass star that has exploded as a supernova which are smaller and denser than white dwarfs.
White Dwarf star
a star about the size of the Earth that has about the same mass of the Sun.
Black dwarf star
a white dwarf that becomes too cool to glow in visible light
the glowing cloud of gas that surrounds a dying star
a contracting cloud of gas and dust with enough mass to form a star
a large cloud of gas and dust spread out over a large volume of space
matter that does not give off radiation. It cannot be seen directly, but its presence can be detected by observing its gravitational effects on visible matter
is an imaginary plane containing the Earth's orbit
is a relatively small natural body in space that revolves around a planet
astronomical units (AU
Distance from the sun is measured
are low (dark), flat plains formed by ancient lunar lava flows.
are chunks of rock that move through the solar system.
The different shapes of the moon visible from Earth
the shadow of one body in space, like a planet or moon, falls on another.
darkest part of the moon's shadow
a region of shadow that is less dark than umbra.
the regular rise and fall of ocean waters
are planets similar in structure to Earth
is a wide belt that extends from Pluto's orbit out to about 100 AU or more from the sun.
a substance or molecule that participates in a chemical reaction
a substance that forms in a chemical reaction
the energy released when a chemical compound reacts to produce new compounds
a chemical reaction in which energy is released to the surroundings as heat
a chemical reaction that requires energy input
a representation of a chemical reaction that uses symbols to show the relationship between the reactants and products
the relative number of moles of the substances required to produce a given amount of product in a chemical reaction
a reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a new compound
a reaction in which a single compound breaks down to form two or more simpler substances
the oxidation reaction of an organic compound in which heat is released
a reaction in which one element or radical takes the place of another element or radical in a compound
a reaction in which a gas, a solid precipitate, or a molecular compound forms from the apparent exchange of atoms or ions between two compounds
an atom or a group of atoms that has one unpaired electron
any chemical change in which one species is oxidized (loses electrons) and another species is reduced (gains electrons)
a substance that changes the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed or changed significantly
a type of protein that speeds up metabolic reaction in plants and animals without being permanently changed or destroyed
the reactant in reactions catalyzed by enzymes
a state of balance in which the rate of a forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction and the concentrations of products and reactants remain unchanged
arrangement of elements in columns, based on a set of properties that repeat from row to row
law of octaves
repeating pattern of properties for every eighth element
up and down column on the periodic table
each row of the periodic table
pattern of repeating properties that occurs in the periodic table
the weighted average of the masses of the isotopes of an element
atomic mass unit
one-twelfth the mass of a carbon-12 atom
left of the zigzag line, shiny, malleable, ductile, good conductors of electric current, good conductors of thermal energy
elements that are usually dull in appearance, poor conductors of heat and electricity, gases at room temperature
elements with properties that fall between those of metals and nonmetals
electrons that occupy the outermost energy level, (highest energy level)
Group 1A elements that are extremely reactive and contain one valence electron
alkaline earth elements
Group 2A elements that very reactive and have two valence electrons
a nonmetal in group 7A of the periodic table - most reactive nonmetal group
one of the unreactive elements of group 18 of the periodic table
elements that form a bridge between the elements on the left and right side of the periodic table
Theorey that states that all matter is made up of indivisual particles called atoms, which cannot be divided.
A dense, positively charged mass located in the center of the atom.
A positively charged subatomic particle that is found in the nucleas of an atom.
A negatively charged subatomic particle that is found in the space outside the nucleas.
A neutral subatomic particle that is found in the nucleas of an atom.
Equals the number of protons in an atom of that element
The sum of the protons and netrons in the nucleas of that atom.
Atoms of the same element that have diffrent number of neutrons and diffrent mass numbers.
The possible energies that electrons in an atom can have.
A visual model of the most likely locations for electrons in an atom.
The arrangement of electrons in an atom.
When all the electrons in an atom have the lowest possible energies.
Rutherford's Atomic Theory
all of an atom's mass is concentrated in its nucleus
Thompson's Model of the Atom
Called the 'plum pudding' model. The atom is a lump of positively charged material with negatively charged electrons scattered in it.
1. All elements are composed of atoms
2. All atoms of the same element have the same mass
3.Compounds contain atoms of more than one element
4.In a particular compound, atoms of diffrent elements always combine in the same way.
protons, neutrons, and electrons
Equation to find the number of nuetrons:
Number of neutrons = Mass number - Atomic Number.
the atom is like the solar system and the planets orbiting the sun
A state of matter in which materials have a definite shape and definite volume
A state of matter in which a material has a definite volume but not a definite shape
A state of matter in which a material does not have a definite shape or volume
Energy of an object due to a motion.
The constant motion of particles in a gas allows a gas to fill a container of any shape or size
The result of a force distributed over an area
A temperature of 0 K
The volume of a gas is directly proportional to its temperature in kelvins if the pressure and the number of particles of the gas are constant
The volume of a gas in inversely proportional to its pressure if the temperature and the number of particls are constant
Combined Gas Law
The relationship among the temperature, volume, and pressure of a gas when the number of particles are constant
The reversible physical change that occurs when a substance changes from one state of matter to antoher
The system absorbs energy from its surroundings
Liquid to gas at temperatures below the substances boiling point
The system releases engery to its surroundings
Liquid to gas
The phase change in which a substance changes froma gas or vapor to a liquid
The phase change in which a substance changes from a solid to a gas or vapor
When gas or vapor changes directly into a solid without first changing into a liquid
The smallest particle of an element.
Temperature at which a substance changes from liquid to gas.
Occurs when a substance reacts with another substance forming one or more new substances.
An ability to produce a change in the composition of matter.
Contains some particles that are intermediate in size between the small particles in a solution and the larger particles in a suspension.
A substance that is made from two or more simpler substances and can be broken down into those simpler substances.
Ability of a material to allow heat and electricity to flow.
Process that separates the substances in a solution based on their boiling points.
A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances.
A process that separates materials based on the size of their particles.
Ability of a material to burn in the presence of oxygen.
The parts of the mixture are noticeably different from one another.
The substances are so evenly distributed that it is difficult to distinguish one substance in the mixture from another.
Ability of a solid to be hammered without shattering.
Temperature at which as substance changes from solid to liquid.
When a substance undergoes a change of state and/or shape, but the chemical properties remain the same.
Any characteristic of a material that can be observed or measured without changing the composition of the substance.
Any solid that forms and separates from a liquid mixture.
Matter that always has the same composition.
How readily a substance combines chemically with other substances.
When substances dissolve and form a homogeneous mixture.
A heterogeneous mixture that separates into layers over time.
The resistance to flow...thickness of a liquid.
Properties can vary because the composition is not fixed.
The resistance of a mineral to scratching.
The ratio of the mass of a substance to its volume.