a substance composed of a single type of atom
Major Elements in the Body
1. Hydrogen (9.5%) 7. Phosphorus (1%)
2. Carbon (18.5%) 8. Sulfur (.3%)
3. Nitrogen (3.3%) 9. Chlorine (.2%)
4. Oxygen (65%) 10. Potassium (.4%)
5. Sodium (.2%) 11. Calcium (1.5%)
6. Magnesium (.1%)
1. H; 2. 1
1. Symbol and 2. Atomic No. of Hydrogen
1. C; 2. 6
1. Symbol and 2. Atomic No. of Carbon
1. N; 2. 7
1. Symbol and 2. Atomic No. of Nitrogen
1. O; 2. 8
1. Symbol and 2. Atomic No. of Oxygen
1. Na; 2. 11
1. Symbol and 2. Atomic No. of Sodium
1. Mg; 2. 12
1. Symbol and 2. Atomic No. of Magnesium
1. P; 2. 15
1. Symbol and 2. Atomic No. of Phosphorus
1. S; 2. 16
1. Symbol and 2. Atomic No. of Sulfur
1. Cl; 2. 17
1. Symbol and 2. Atomic No. of Chlorine
1. K; 2. 19
1. Symbol and 2. Atomic No. of Potassium
1. Ca; 2. 20
1. Symbol and 2. Atomic No. of Calcium
Trace Elements of the Body
1. Boron 6. Copper
2. Fluorine 7. Zinc
3. Manganese 8. Selenium
4. Iron 9. Molybdenum
5. Cobalt 10. Iodine
1. B ; 2. 5
1. Symbol and 2. Atomic No. of Boron
1. F ; 2. 9
1. Symbol and 2. Atomic No. of Fluorine
1. Mn ; 2. 25
1. Symbol and 2. Atomic No. of Manganese
1. Fe ; 2. 26
1. Symbol and 2. Atomic No. of Iron
1. Co ; 2. 27
1. Symbol and 2. Atomic No. of Cobalt
1. Cu ; 2. 29
1. Symbol and 2. Atomic No. of Copper
1. Zn ; 2. 30
1. Symbol and 2. Atomic No. of Zinc
1. Se ; 2. 34
1. Symbol and 2. Atomic No. of Selenium
1. Mo ; 2. 42
1. Symbol and 2. Atomic No. of Molybdenum
1. I ; 2. 53
1. Symbol and 2. Atomic No. of Iodine
the smallest part of an element which cannot be broken down further by ordinary chemical means. They are composed of protons, neutrons and electrons.
a subatomic particle found in the nucleus having a mass of 1 and a charge of +1
a subatomic particle found in the nucleus having a mass of 1 and a neutral charge
a subatomic particle found orbiting the nucleus with a charge of -1
The protons and neutrons are contained in the central core of the atom. Area where most of the atom's mass is concentrated.
equal to the number of protons in the nucleus
the average mass of atoms of an element
the weight of a specific atom
the chemical combination of two or more atoms
the written representation using letters as symbols for the chemical structure of a molecule
finger print of element
The number of protons in an atom identifies the element.
are atms of the same element that contain the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.
Make up of protein
long chains (polymers) of amino acids containg C, H, N, O and S.
building blocks of protein, consists of an alpha carbon atom to which it is attached.
Types of alpha carbons
1. Hydrogen Atom
2. Amino Group
3. Carboxyl Group (Acid Group)
4. Functional Group (Side Group)
Examples of Typical Amino Acids
Formation of protein
the linking of amino acids together and forming peptide bonds.
dehydration synthesis (condensation)
When a hydroxyl group is removed from one amino acid and a hydrogen from the other resulting in the production of water.
Hierarchal Protein Structure
1. Primary Structure
2. Secondary Structure
3. Tertiary Structure
4. Quaternary Structure
the sequence of amino acids
alpha helical and beta sheet that have regular hydrogen bonding patterns.
the final geometric shape that a protein forms. This shape is determined by bonding interactions between the "side chains" on the amino acids.
involves the grouping of several individual peptide or protein chains into a specific shape. Shown below is ferritin which stores iron.
Essential Amino Acids
amino acids that must be taken in the diet, since they can not be synthesized in the body.
Non-Essential Amino Acids
amino acids that are necessary components of proteins but do not need to taken in the diet since the body can synthesize them.
______ can partially meet the need for methionine (they both contain ______), and _______ can partially substitute for phenylalanine.
4. plant proteins
Strict vegetarians should ensure that their diet contains sufficient amounts of the ____ amino acids, _____ and _____, which are found in low quantities in most ____ ______.
Types of Essential Amino Acids
1.Valine 6. Phenylalanine
2.Leucine 7. Tryptophan
3.Isoleucine 8. Lysine
4.Threonine 9. Histidine
Types of Non-Essential Amino Acids
1. Glycine 7. Asparagine
2. Alanine 8. Arginine
3. Serine 9. Glutamic Acid
4. glutamine 10. Aspartic Acid
5. Cysteine 11. Tyrosine
6. Proline 12. Hydroxyproline
Atoms with ____ outermost orbital shells are stable.
Atoms with ______ orbitals in their outermost shell tend to be reactive with other atoms.
1. 2, 8, 8
Orbitals contain 2, 8, 8 etc. electrons
atoms lose, gain or share valence electrons in order to produce a stable arrangement of eight electrons.
union between atoms formed when they give up, gain, or share electrons
1. Energy is stored 50-100 kcal/mol
2. Sharing of outer orbital electron(s) between atoms
a. Shared electrons fill outer orbital and stabilize the atom
b. Energy required to share electrons
Covalent Bond Types
share one electron between atoms (H-O-H or H-H)
share two electrons between atoms (C=C)
share three electrons between atoms (N=N)
Electrons shared equally between atoms
Electrons spend a greater time around one atom (it takes longer to orbit a larger atom)
Transfer of electrons from one atom to another
One atom gives up an electron and becomes positively charged
One atom accepts an electron and becomes negatively charged
Electrical attraction in ionic bonds
a. Weak (5-7 kcal/mol)
b. Water easily disrupts
Weak attractive force between slightly positive hydrogen of one molecule and slightly negative atom in another (3-7 kcal/mol)
a. Heat will readily break H-bonds
Function of Hydrogen Bond
Extremely important in biology
a. Stabilizes protein structure
b. Holds DNA strands together
c. Impart structure to liquid water
atoms of the same element that contain the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.
are elements that spontaneously disintegrate by emitting particles and/or waves in an effort to get rid of excess energy and become stable.
is the time required for radioactive material to lose half of its activity by decay
types of radiation
mass of 4 AMU, range- mm to cm, QF* of 20 (the higher the number the more damaging.
of .0005 AMU, range cm to feet, QF 1
mass 0, range- mm to feet, QF 1
A numerical factor used to describe the effectiveness of a particular type of radiation in producing biological effects on humans.
Man-made radioactive isotopes
stable atoms are bombarded by fast moving alpha particles, protons, or neutrons. When the particles are absorbed by a stable nucleus, the nucleus becomes unstable
(1/2 life 60.1 days) can be implanted as seeds or pellets within the prostate.
(1/2 life 6 hours) is used in the detection of brain tumors and evaluation of liver and spleen
a beta emitter is used to evaluate thyroid function and treat hyperthyroidism.
The use of isotopes to irradiate cancerous tissues.
Isotopes are used to trace ____ or other _____ throughout the body.
chemical reaction synthesis
the combination of atoms, ions, or molecules into new and larger structures
chemical reaction decomposition
the breakdown of a molecule into smaller parts
logarithmic scale ranging from 0-14 representing, hydrogen ion concentrations and as a result, each whole pH value below 7 is ten times more acidic than the next higher value. pH = - log [H+]
A substance that releases hydrogen ions (H+) in solution, ex. HCL
Substances that release ions that can combine with hydrogen ions, such as OH- (hydroxide ions)
a partnership between a weak acid and the base that forms when it dissolves in water.
combine with, or release, H+ to prevent drastic changes in pH.
1. major buffers
Carbonic acid is one of the body's ______.
an ionic compound formed when an acid reacts with a base; example: NaOH + HCl ——> NaCl + H2O
Chemical Compositions of the Body by element (order of abundance
Oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, phophorus, sulfer, potassium, other
A protein deficiency syndrome occurring in infants and children due to a deficiency in the quality and quantity of protein. Symptoms include edema, distension of the abdomen, impaired growth and development and weakness. Treatment requires the addition of foods that contain complete proteins (20 amino acids).
A genetic disease in which the body is unable to metabolize phenylalanine to tyrosine due to the lack of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. Severe brain damage and mental retardation could occur if left untreated. Symptoms include tremors, convulsions, mental deficiency and peculiar odor of urine and sweat. Treatment requires reducing phenylalanine in the diet.